1. What are the pressures that contribute to a +10 mm Hg filtration pressure (net filtration) in the renal corpuscle?
    • 1. Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure = 50mmHg
    • 2. Blood Collid Osmotic Pressure = 30mmHg
    • 3. Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure = 10 mmHgImage Upload 1
  2. Why is MAP important for renal filtration and why we need to regulate GFR and if we
    change MAP how will that affect GFR?
    • Mean Artiral Pressure is important for renal filtration because it affects Glomeruluar Hydrostatic Pressure which affects Glomerular Filtration Rate. We need to regulate GFR becuase it controls the volume of fluid filtered.
    •    * Increase in MAP = Increase in GFR: Its not good because the needed substances wont be reabsorbed quickly enough and therefore lost in the urine.
    •    * Decrease in MAP = Decrease in GFR: Everything will be reabsorbed even waste.
  3. How is GFR regulated by myogenic response?
    • *Increase in BP = Increase in GFR: Afferent arterioles constrict and GFR decrease.
    • * Decrease in BP =  Decrease in GFR: Afferent arterioles dilate and GFR increases
  4. How is GFR regulated by tubuloglomerular regulation?
    • Macula densa cells in the Distal convoluted Tubuel are sensitive to [Na+] because aldosterone reabs. Na+
    •    *If [Na+] is high in DCT GFR is too fast and the aff. art. constricts
    •    *If [Na+] is low in DCT GFR is too slow and the aff. art. dilates
  5. How is GFR regulated by ANS?
    • *Sympathetic NS (NE, Epi)- vasoconstricts afferent arteriole
    • *Angiotensin II- vasoconstricts afferent arteroile
  6. Under what conditions is renin released from JG apparatus and how that affects MAP
    • JG cells contain an enzyme called renin that senses Bp changes
    • Decrease in MAP =  afferent art.  dialate: renine released constricts afferent art. and MAP increases.
  7. What is reabsorbed in PCT
    a.a., Na, glc, and bicarbonate
  8. what is secreted in the PCT
    antibiotics, creatinine, uric acid, some diuretics
  9. How is glucose handled in the PCT --> blood?
    • Glucose is 100% reabsorbed in PCT with aid of carrier proteins.  Glucose  is not usually found in urine.
    • –Carrier proteins for glucose reabsorption
    •    •Apical membrane: secondary active transport
    •    •Basolateral membrane:facilitated diffusion
  10. how does diabetes mellitus causes the symptom of glucosurea and when (renal threshold/ past 175 mg/ dl of plasma)
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