osvaldo science exam 2

  1. what is puberty
    the time when all the changes of sexual maturity happen
  2. the primary sexual characteristics
    the organs of the reproductive system , for women and men.
  3. what are the female primary sexual characteristics?
    • the vagina,
    • the uterus,
    • the fallopian tubes,
    • the ovaries
    • and the cervix.
  4. the male reporoductive system
    includes the penis, the scrotum, and the testicles
  5. what is the vulva?
    • the external part of the female reproductive organs.
    • located between the legs, it covers the vagina.
  6. what is the vagina?
    a hollow muscular tube that extends from the vaginal opening to the cervix.
  7. what is the uterus?
    is shaped like a pear; it contains some of the strongest muscles in the femail body
  8. what are the fallopian tubes?
    tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus.
  9. what are ovaries?
    two oval shaped organs that produce, store and relaease eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation
  10. the three parts of the penis?
    • the root: attached to the abdomen
    • the body:
    • the glans: a cone-shaped part at the end
  11. what is a scrotum:
    • a loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs below the penis.
    • -it contains the testicles. (also called the testes)
  12. what do the testes or testicles do?
    • - make testosterone, the primary make sex hormone
    • - generate sperm
  13. what is the epididymis?
    it is where the spermatzoids are
  14. what is the urethra?
    • it travels thourgh the penis,
    • it carries semen and urine.
  15. what is the prostate?
    It makes a white fluid that is 20-30% of the volume of semen with spermatozoa and seimal vesicle fluid.
  16. What are the seminal vesicles?
    they are 2 glands the make a significant portion of the fluid that becomes semen.
  17. what age does puberty start in girls?
    around 11 years old.
  18. what age does puberty start in boys?
    around 13 in boys.
  19. changes to girls in puberty?
    • -they grow taller
    • -the breasts grow
    • -the body changes
    • -the hips get rounder
    • -public hair grows
    • -the menstrual cycle starts
  20. what is the menstrual cycle?
    a small amount of blood from the vagina every month
  21. What changes happen to boys in puberty?
    • -the penis and the testicles grow
    • -pubic and body hair grows
    • -the voice changes
    • -hair grows on the face
    • -
  22. what is a hormone?
    a chemical substance produced by an endocrine gland that has a specific effect on the body
  23. estrogen
    • the sex hormone produced primarily by the ovaries
    • -stimulate the growth of the sex organs, the breasts and pubic hair
    • -regulate the functioning of the menstrual cycle
  24. progesterone
    a steriod hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle and preganancy
  25. emotional changes that happen in puberty
    • - more independent
    • -mood changes (different strong emotions)
    • -depression about body changes and school pressure
  26. how does the menstrual cycle start?
    • estrogen production increase in the girl's body
    • -the egg travels in the fallopian tubes for 3 or 4 days
  27. days 1 to 5 of the menstrual cycle:
    the period begins
  28. days 6 to 13 of the menstrual cycle
    the egg matures
  29. days 15 to 22 of the menstral cycle
    • day 14 - ovulation happens
    • the egg starts to move through the fallopian tubes to the uterus
  30. days 23 to 28 of the menstrual cycle
    the not fertilized egg gets to the uterus
  31. what is FECUNDATION
    when the sperm joins with the egg in the fallopian tube, and a new being starts to grow in the uterus
  32. what is pregnancy?
    how long does it take?
    • the process since fecundation until delivery of the baby.
    • it takes 9 months.
  33. what are the symptoms of pregancy
    • nausea and vomitting
    • changes in sleeping,
    • the menstrual period stops,
    • headaches and cramps
    • the stomach grows
  34. development of the baby in pregnancy:
    9 months
    • the baby finishes its development and is ready to be born
    • - around 50 cm size
  35. precautions during pregancy
    • -do exercise
    • -visit the doctor a lot
    • -eat fruit and vegetables
    • -drink the correct medicines
    • -don't drink alcohol
    • -be calm
    • don't smoke
  36. the delivery of the baby
    happens at 9 months
  37. the 1st stage of delivery
    • dilation:
    • -the uterus makes contractions to push the baby out
    • -the cervix opens to 10 cm
  38. second stage of delivery
    • fetal expulsion:
    • -the cervix is fully dilated
    • -the baby emerges
  39. third stage of delivery
    the umbilical cord and the placenta emerge
  40. What is energy?
    the ability to do work.
  41. What is potencial energy?
    • It's stored energy like
    • *the energy of the water in a dam.
    • *the gas in a car
  42. kintetic energy
    the energy of motion and movement.
  43. What is radiant energy
    the energy of light. for example, the sun
  44. mechanical energy
    the energy of motion. for example when you run.
  45. nuclear energy
    • created in power plants
    • by dividing the atom
  46. gravitational energy
    • the energy produced by gravity.
    • example is the earth's gravitational force.
  47. chemical energy
    • chemical reaction that causes changes.
    • can be in food or fuel.
    • for example, a battery, sugar
  48. electrical energy
    when motion, light or heat is produced by an electrical current
  49. thermal energy
    when tempreture or motion is caused by heat
  50. sound energy
    • energy produced by sound vibrations
    • for example, the radio
  51. magnetic energy
    • the ability to attract or repell because of a magnetic field.
    • for example a magnet.
  52. wind energy
    the wind is used to produce for example electricity
  53. geothermic energy
    • heat from the earth.
    • examples hot springs.
  54. seismic energy
    energy produced by earthquakes.
  55. 1. What is the nervous system?
    • A network of cells and neurons.
    • It controls body movement and thought.
  56. The specialized cells of the nervous system are called ____________
  57. what are the names of the three parts of the neuron
    Image Upload 1
  58. What are the synapses?
    Synapses are connections between different neurons to transmit information.
  59. Write the name of the two main parts of the nervous system.
    - the Central Nervous System (CNS)


    - the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  60. What are the main components of the Central Nervous System?
    • the brain
    • - the spinal cord.
  61. What is the main component of the Peripheral Nervous System?
  62. What is the function of the brain stem?
    It maintains blood pressure, heartbeat, respiration and digestion.
  63. What is the main function of the Cerebellum?
    It controls balance and posture and helps movement.
  64. What is the main function of the cerebrum?
    It interprets information from the senses, controls muscles, thinking and language.
  65. What is the main function of the Spinal Cord?
    It sends information from the nerves to the brain.
  66. Why is the brain important?
    You need your brain to think, to act, to move, even to breathe and for your blood to circulate. You can't live if you have no brain.
  67. 4 actions to contribute to the right functioning of the nervous system?
    • - Don't take drugs.
    • - Drink lots of water.
    • - Do excercise.
    • - Eat a good diet with lots of fruit and vegetables.
  68. 4 consequences of consuming drugs for the nervous system.
    • - neurons die.
    • - you can lose your memory
    • - you can have accidents
    • - motor coordination can be damaged
  69. explain 3 drugs and give examples
    1 - depressants: they make you relax. examples alcohol, and cannabis.

    2- stimulants: they stimulate the brain and increase the heart rate and blood pressure. examples: caffeine in coffee.

    3 - Hallucinogens: they affect the perception, you see imaginary things. Examples: LSD and magic mushrooms.
  70. 4 ways to prevent the consumption of drugs in young people.
    • 1 -Do exercise and sport.
    • 2 -Focus on your life objectives.
    • 3- Don't be with people who take drugs.
    • 4- spend time with your family.
  71. What is the main function of the endocrine system?
    It controls cell growth through hormones and glands.
  72. What is a gland?
    A gland is a group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals.
  73. What is a hormone?
    Chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body.
  74. How do hormones travel in the body?
    In the blood.
  75. What main hormone is produced by the pituitary gland?
    growth hormone.
  76. What hormone is produced by the testes?
    testosterone, the male sex hormone
  77. What main hormone is produced in the ovaries?
  78. What hormone is produced by the pancreas?
  79. it controls the amount of glucose in the blood
  80. They control female characteristics and the menstrual cycle
  81. it controls body growth and development
    Pituitary gland
  82. It controls how cells release energy
  83. it controls the body's reaction to anger, fright or fear
    the adrenal gland
  84. They control male characeristics
    the testes
  85. it controls the amount of calcium and phosphorous in the blood
  86. locate the 7 glands in the body
    Image Upload 2
  87. What gland and hormone are related with diabetes?
    • gland is the pancreas
    • hormone is insulin
  88. Gigantism is caused because of an excess of which hormone?
    growth hormone
  89. Growth disorders are related to which gland?
    the pituitary gland
  90. Which two glands are related to osteoporosis?
    • the thyroid gland
    • the pituitary
  91. What is osetoporosis
    it is weak bones
  92. an excess of thyroid hormone results in
  93. A deficiency of thyroid hormone results in
  94. What does the big bang theory refer to?
    A theory about the beginning of the universe, time and space.

    It was a detonation or flash.

    A dense hot ball of hydrogen and helium began expanding quickly.

    Like an expansion of time and space.
  95. What is the main difference between  the Steady State Universe and the
    In the big bang theory, the density of matter is expanding.

    In steady state universe, the density of matter is constant over time. the universe is constant it doesn't begin or end.
  96. Why is the moon important to life on earth?
    • it gives us the tides and
    • regulates the orbit of the planet.
  97. What abiotic factors are important to life on earth?
    Light: we need it for energy, it controls biological rhythms.

    Heat: necessary for animals and plants

    Atmosphere: to protect from dangerous rays from the sun, and to breathe.

    Water: all living beings need water to survive, we need it in many organic processes
Card Set
osvaldo science exam 2
science exam grade 6