Politics Key Terms (*)

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  1. Executive Agreements
    • •rests primarily on presidents constitutional authority as commander in chief
    • •cover issues such as trade, war reparations, nuclear energy
    • •published in Treaties and Other International Agreements
    • •not binding on subsequent administrations
  2. minority leader
    head of party with 2nd highest number of elected presidents in House or Senate
  3. President Pro Tempore
    official chair of Senate; usually most senior member of majority party
  4. amicus curaie
    "friend of court", may list briefs or appear to argue their interests orally before court
  5. Writ of Certiorari
    petitions from parties seeking review of their cases (2/3rds of the cases). Rigorous filing requirements
  6. Majority and Minority Whips
    –Mainly responsible for counting heads and rounding-up party members for votes
  7. Standing Committee
    • -Coordinate party strategy and try to keep their parties united
    • -Leadership positions have few specific powers, so positions require skill, intelligence, personality, and ability to compromise
  8. The Vice President
    • •Primary job: to assume office if the president dies or is incapacitated
    • •Only formal duty is to preside over the Senate or to break tie votes in the Senate
  9. A vice president is chosen for a number of reasons
    • –geographical balance
    • –to bring party back together at convention
    • –VPs can also be used to overcome candidate shortcomings
  10. Executive Office of the President
    • •very important inner circle of advisors to president; staffed by people responsible to president alone
    • •helps the president
  11. in forma pauperis
    Writ must be filed 90 days from final judgment or denial of hearing by lower court. No rigorous filing requirements
  12. stare decisis
    • "Let the decision stand"
    • -policy of courts to abide by or adhere to principles established by decisions in earlier cases
  13. White House Staff
    • -people most directly responsible to the president
    • -(chief) facilitates smooth running of staff and executive branch of government, protects president from mistakes, implements policies that help obtain maximum political advantage
  14. Speaker of the House
    • –Only House officer mentioned in Constitution
    • –Elected at beginning of each new session of Congress by entire House
    • –Member of majority party
  15. U.S. Term Limits v. Thornton
    SC ruled that states can't impose qualifications for members of Congress stricter than those specified in Constitution
  16. enumerated powers
    • powers of the central government
    • •lay and collect taxes, duties, and imposts
    • •provide for defense & general welfare
    • •regulate commerce with foreign nations
    • •declare war
  17. Implied Powers
    The central government may make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the enumerated powers
  18. Reserve Powers Clause
    powers not delegated by Constitution, are reserved to States or to people.
  19. Denied Powers
    • Article I, section 9 lays out powers denied to central government:
    • -Favor one state over another
    • -Impose taxes from any state
    • -Grant titles of nobility
    • -Government officials cannot accept presents
  20. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    • Upheld power of national government to establish a bank and denied the right of state to tax national bank
    • -first major decision by Supreme Court under Chief Marshall
    • -define relationship between states and national government
  21. Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
    Upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce
  22. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    Supreme Court decision, upholding state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under doctrine of "separate but equal"
  23. Full Faith and Credit
    • *Article IV, Section I
    • addresses duties that states within the US have to respect "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state."
  24. Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
    • Imposes a number of restrictions on federal government with respect to rights of persons suspected of committing a crime
    • (Amendment 5)
  25. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
    Court ruled that a lawyer was necessity in criminal court. State must provide a lawyer to poor defendants in felony cases
  26. Exclusionary Rule
    Judicially created rule that prohibits police from using illegally seized evidence at trial
  27. Political machines
    party organizations that recruited members by offering incentives such as jobs, money, favors
  28. Electoral College
    Representatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually select a president
  29. Runoff Primary
    If no candidate wins in these primaries, a second primary election is held between the two candidates receiving the greatest number of votes in the first primary
  30. Recall (elections)
    allow citizens to remove someone from office
  31. Party Platform
    list of actions which political party supports to appeal to general public for purpose of having said peoples' candidates voted into political office or complicated topics or issues
  32. Party planks
    any one of multiple stated principles or objectives comprising political platform of party campaigning for election
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Politics Key Terms (*)
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