1. Business-to-business EC
    • Electronic
    • commerce between business partners, such as suppliers and intermediaries
  2. Business-to-consumer EC
    • Electronic
    • commerce between businesses and consumers
  3. Business-to-employee EC
    Electronic commerce between businesses and their employees
  4. Mass customization
    • Customizing products and services to meet particular needs of individual customers on a
    • large scale
  5. Reintermediation
    • The design of
    • business models that reintroduce
    • middlemen in order to reduce the chaos brought on by disintermediation
  6. Disintermediation
    • The phenomenon
    • of cutting out the
    • “middleman” in transactions and reaching customers more directly and
    • efficiently
  7. Brick-and-mortar business strategy
    • A business
    • approach exclusively utilizing physical locations, such as department stores, business offices,
    • and manufacturing plants, without an online presence
  8. Brick-and-clicks business strategy
    • A business
    • approach utilizing both physical
    • locations and virtual
    • locations
  9. Revenue model
    • Part of a business
    • model that describes how the organization will earn revenue, generate profits, and produce a superior return on
    • invested capital
  10. Value proposition
    • What a business provides to a customer and
    • what that customer is willing to pay for that product or service
  11. Global information dissemination
    • The use of the Internet as an
    • inexpensive means for distributing
    • an organization’s information
  12. Affiliate marketing
    • A type of
    • marketing that allows individual Web site owners to earn revenue by posting
    • other companies’ ads on their Web pages
  13. Viral marketing
    • Type of
    • marketing that resembles offline word-of-mouth communication in which
    • advertising messages are spread similar to how real viruses are transmitted
    • through offline social networks
  14. Subscription marketing
    • A business
    • model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the
    • product/service
  15. Supply chain
    • The collection
    • of companies and processes involved in moving a product from the suppliers of
    • raw materials, to the suppliers of intermediate components, to final
    • production, and to customer
  16. Extranet
    • A private web
    • site used by firms and companies for business-to-business interactions
  17. Intranet
    • An internal,
    • private network using Web technologies to facilitate the secured transmission
    • of proprietary information within an organization, thereby limiting access to
    • authorized users within the organization
  18. Reverse pricing system
    • A pricing
    • system in which customers specify the product they are looking for and how much
    • they are willing to pay; this information is routed to appropriate companies
    • who either accept or reject this offer
  19. Web analytics
    • The analysis of
    • Web surfers’ behavior in order to improve a site’s performance
  20. Pay-per-click model
    • A payment model
    • used in online advertising where the advertiser pays the web site owner a fee
    • for visitors visiting a certain link
  21. Click-through rate
    • The
    • ratio of surfers who click on an ad divided by the number of times it was
    • displayed
  22. Shill bidding
    • The act of
    • bidding on your own auction against other bidders in order to raise the price
    • at which your item will eventually sell
  23. Bid luring
    • Luring bidders
    • to leave a legitimate auction to buy the same item at a lower price outside the
    • auction space, where return policies and byer protection do not apply
  24. Clustering
    • Data mining
    • technique grouping related records on the basis of having similar attributes
  25. Data mart
    • A data
    • warehouse that is limited in scope and customized for the decision support
    • applications of a particular end-user group
  26. Data warehouse
    • An integration
    • of multiple, large databases and other information sources into a single
    • repository or access point that is suitable for direct querying, analysis, or
    • processing
  27. Date mining
    • A method used by
    • companies to discover “hidden” predictive relationships in data to better
    • understand their customers, products, markets, or any other phase of their
    • business for which data has been captured
  28. Drill-down report
    • Report that
    • provides details behind the summary values on a key-indicator or exception
    • report
  29. Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)
    • A diagram used
    • to display the structure of data and show associations between entities
  30. Hard data
    • Facts and
    • numbers that are typically generated by transaction processing systems and
    • management information systems
  31. Facts and
    numbers that are typically generated by transaction processing systems and
    management information systems
    • Used primarily
    • to extract information from existing data
  32. Key-indicator reports
    • Report that
    • provides a summary of critical information on a recurring schedule
  33. Metadata
    • Data about
    • data, describing data in terms of who, where, when , why, and so on
  34. Master data
    • The data that
    • is deemed most important in the operation of a business
  35. Normalization
    • A technique for
    • making complex databases more efficient and more easily handled by a database
    • management system
  36. Online analytical processing
    • The process of
    • quickly conducting complex analyses of data stored in a database, typically
    • using graphical software tools
  37. Soft data
    Soft data
  38. Visualization
    • The display of
    • complex data relationships using a variety of graphical methods
  39. Business process management
    • A systematic,
    • structured improvement approach by all or part of an organization including a
    • critical examination and redesign of business processes in order to achieve
    • dramatic improvements in one or more performance measures such as quality,
    • cycle time, or cost
  40. Core business processes
    • order-to-cash,
    • procure-to-pay, make-to-stock, make-to-order
  41. Custom software
    • Software
    • programs that are designed and developed for a company’s specific needs as
    • opposed to being bought off the shelf
  42. Enterprise-wide systems
    • An information
    • system that spans the entire organization and can be used to integrate business
    • processes, activities, and information across all functional areas of a firm
  43. ERP extended components
    • The components
    • of an ERP that support the primary external activities of an organization for
    • dealing with suppliers and customers
  44. Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
    • An information
    • system that integrates business activities across departmental boundaries,
    • including planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing, and so on
  45. ERP core components
    • The components
    • of an ERP that support the internal activities of an organization for producing
    • products and services
  46. Human resource activities
    • Involves the
    • business activities associated with employee management, such as hiring,
    • interview scheduling, payroll, and benefits management
  47. Inbound logistics
    • Involves business
    • activities associated with receiving and stocking raw materials, parts, and
    • products
  48. Make-to-Stock
    • The processes
    • associated with producing goods based on demand forecasts
  49. Make-to-Order
    • The processes
    • associated with producing goods based on sales order
  50. Outbound logistics
    • Involves business
    • activities associated with the receipt of raw materials, parts, and products.
  51. Order-to-Cash strategy
    • The processes
    • associated with selling a product or service
  52. Packaged software
    • Applications written
    • by third-party vendors for the needs of many different users and organizations
  53. Procure-to-Pay
    • The processes
    • associated with procuring goods from external vendors
  54. Stand-alone applications
    • A system that
    • focuses on the specific needs of an individual department and is not designed
    • to communicate with other systems in the organization
  55. Bullwhip effect
    • Large fluctuations
    • in suppliers’ forecasts caused by small fluctuations in demand for the end
    • product and the need to create safety buffers
  56. Demand planning and forecasting module
    • Examine historical
    • data to develop the most accurate forecasts possible
  57. Distribution planning module
    • Focuses on
    • delivering products or services to consumers as well as warehousing,
    • delivering, invoicing, and payment collection
  58. Just-in-Time strategies
    • A method to
    • optimize ordering quantities such that parts or raw material arrive just when
    • they are needed for production
  59. Product flow
    Movement of goods from Supplier -> distribution -> consumer
  60. Product recall
    • A request to
    • return to the maker a batch or an entire production run of a product, usually
    • due to the discovery of safety issues or a product defect
  61. RFID tags
    • The use of the
    • electromagnetic energy to transmit information between a reader (transceiver)
    • and a processing device, used to replace bar codes and bar code readers
  62. Supply chain visibility
    • The ability to
    • track products as they move through the supply chain and to foresee external
    • events
  63. Supply chain analytics
    • The use of key
    • performance indicators to monitor performance of the entire supply chain
    • including sourcing, planning, production, and distribution
  64. Vendor-managed inventory
    • A business
    • model in which the suppliers to a manufacturer (or retailer) manage the
    • manufacturer’s (or retailer’s) inventory levels based on preestablished service
    • levels
  65. Alpha testing
    • Testing performed
    • by the development organization to assess whether the entire system meets the
    • design requirements of the users
  66. Break-even analysis
    • A type of
    • cost-benefit analysis to identify at what point (if ever) tangible benefits
    • equal tangible costs
  67. Beta testing
    • testing
    • performed by actual system users with actual data in their work environment
  68. Intangible cost
    • The cost of
    • using a particular system or technology that is difficult to quantify
  69. Intangible benefit
    • A benefit of
    • using a particular system or technology that is difficult to quantify
  70. Off-the-shelf software
    • Software designed
    • and used to support general business processes that does not require any
    • specific tailoring to meet an organization’s needs
  71. Prototyping
    • An iterative
    • systems development process in which requirements are converted into a working
    • system that is continually revised through close work between analysts and
    • users
  72. Requirement collection
    • The process of
    • gathering and organizing information from users, managers, customers, business
    • processes, and documents to understand how a proposed information system should
    • function
  73. System efficiency
    • The extent to
    • which a system enables people and/or a firm to do things faster, at lower cost,
    • or with relatively little time and effort
  74. Tangible cost
    • A cost of using
    • a particular system of technology that is quantifiable
  75. Tangible benefit
    • A benefit of
    • using a particular system or technology that is quantifiable
  76. Total cost of ownership of a system
    • The cost of
    • owning and operating a system, including the total cost of acquisition, as well
    • as all costs associated with its ongoing use and maintenance
  77. Weighted multicriteria analysis
    • Method for
    • deciding among different information systems investments or alternative designs
    • for a given system in which requirements and constraints are weighted on the
    • basis of their importance
  78. Biometrics
  79. Botnet
    • Collection of
    • zombie computers used for destructive activities or spamming
  80. Crackers
    • An individual
    • who breaks into computer systems with the intention of doing damage or
    • committing a crime
  81. Cookie
    • A message
    • passed by a Web server to a Web browser to be stored on a user’s computer; this
    • message is then sent back to the server each time the user’s browser requests a
    • page from that server
  82. Cyberterrorism
    • The use of
    • computer and networking technologies against persons or property to intimidate
    • or coerce governments, individuals, or any segment of society to attain
    • political, religious , or ideological goals
  83. Firewall
    • Hardware or
    • software designed to keep unauthorized users out of network systems
  84. Hacktivists
    • Cybercriminal pursuing
    • political, religious, or ideological goals
  85. Honeypot
    • A computer,
    • data, or network site that is designed to be enticing to crackers so as to
    • detect, deflect, or counteract illegal activity
  86. Identity theft
    • Stealing another
    • person’s SSN, credit card number, and other personal information for the
    • purpose of using the victim’s credit rating to borrow money, buy merchandise,
    • and run up debts that are never repaid
  87. Information systems security
    • Precautions taken
    • to keep all aspects of information systems safe from unauthorized use or access
  88. Phishing
    • Attempts to
    • trick financial account and credit card holders into giving away their authorization
    • information, usually by sending spam messages to literally millions of e-mail
    • accounts. Also known as “spoofing”
  89. Spyware
    • Software that
    • covertly gathers information about a user through an internet connection
    • without the user’s knowledge
  90. Spam
    • Electronic junk
    • email
  91. The computer fraud and abuse act
    • Reduce cracking
    • of computer systems and to address federal computer-related offenses.
  92. The electronic communications privacy act
    • Government
    • restrictions on wire taps from telephone calls to include transmissions of
    • electronic data by computer
  93. The USA Patriot act
    • Significantly reduced restrictions in law enforcement
    • agencies' gathering of intelligence within the United States
  94. Trojan horse
    • Destructive computer
    • code whose instructions remain hidden to the user because the computer appears
    • to function normally, but, in fact, is performing underlying functions dictated
    • by the intrusive code
  95. Unauthorized
  96. Virus
    • Destructive program
    • that disrupts the normal functioning of computer systems
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