What are the four perspectives in Study of Personality?
- Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory)
- Trait Perspective
What is the 3, 3, 5 theory of personality of Freud?
- 3 Divisions of Consciousness
- 3 Parts of Personality
- 5 Psychosexual Stages
What are the 3 Divisions of Consciousness?
- Preconscious mind
- Conscious mind
- Unconscious mind
3 Divisions of Consciousness: Preconscious mind
information is available but not currently conscious
3 Divisions of Consciousness: Conscious mind
aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions
3 Divisions of Consciousness: Unconscious mind
thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness
Parts of Personality (Freud): Id
part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious
Parts of Personality (Freud): The Id operates according to the________.
Parts of Personality (Freud): What is the Pleasure Principle?
- principle by which the id functions
- the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse
- seeks to avoid pain or unpleasure
Parts of Personality (Freud): The id contains ______ the primal sexuality and pursuit of sensual gratification driving human behavior.
Parts of Personality (Freud): Ego
part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
Parts of Personality (Freud): The ego's control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world is known as the __________.
Parts of Personality (Freud): Superego
part of the personality that acts as a moral center
Parts of Personality (Freud): What are the two parts of the superego?
Parts of Personality (Freud): Ego ideal
part of the superego that contains standards for moral behavior
Parts of Personality (Freud): Conscience
part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the superego
Psychological defense mechanisms
unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety
What are examples of psychological defense mechanisms?
Freud's Psychosexual stages
five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child
Freud's Psychosexual stage: Oral Stage
- first stage occurring in the first year of life
- the mouth is the erogenous zone
- conflict: weaning (off oral behaviors: bottle, binkie, thumb sucking, etc.)
- id dominated
Freud's Psychosexual stage: Oral Fixation
can result when a child is weaned to soon or to late
Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal Stage
- 1 - 3 years
- anus is the erogenous zone
- conflict: toilet training
- ego develops
Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal expulsive personality
fixated in the anal stage and is messy, destructive, and hostile
Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal retentive personality
fixated in the anal stage and is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
Freud's Psychosexual stage: Phallic stage
- third stage
- ~ age 3 - 6 years
- the child discovers sexual feelings
- superego develops
Freud's Psychosexual stages: Oedipus complex
situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a male child develops a sexual attraction to his mother and jealousy towards his father
Freud's Psychosexual stages: What is the Oedipus complex for female children?
Freud's Psychosexual stages: Latency
- fourth stage
- occurs during the school years
- the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
Freud's Psychosexual stages: Genital
sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets
Modern Psychoanalytic Theory: Current research has found support for what two parts of Freud's theory?
- Defense mechanisms
- Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior
Behaviorism and Personality
define personality as a set of learned responses or habits
Behaviorism: What are habits?
sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
Behaviorism: How is personality shaped from a Behaviorist's point of view?
based on learned patterns directly (positive/negative reinforcement) or indirectly (observation/modeling)
Behaviorism: Social Cognitive Learning Theorists
importance of both the influences of other people's behaviors and of a person's own expectancies on learning
Behaviorism: Social Cognitive View
learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models
Behaviorism: Reciprocal Determinism
Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior
individual's perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (NOT the same as self-esteem)
the "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice
Humanism: How was this perspective developed?
as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism
Humanism: Maslow and Rogers Main characteristics
Measuring Personality: Projective Tests
personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind
Measuring Personality: Rorschach Inkblot Test
projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli
Measuring Personality: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli
Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test?
Thematic Apperception Test
Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test?
Rorschach Inkblot Test