psych220 CH 13

  1. What are the four perspectives in Study of Personality?
    • Psychoanalytic
    • Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory)
    • Humanistic
    • Trait Perspective
  2. What is the 3, 3, 5 theory of personality of Freud?
    • 3 Divisions of Consciousness
    • 3 Parts of Personality
    • 5 Psychosexual Stages
  3. What are the 3 Divisions of Consciousness?
    • Preconscious mind
    • Conscious mind
    • Unconscious mind
  4. 3 Divisions of Consciousness: Preconscious mind
    information is available but not currently conscious
  5. 3 Divisions of Consciousness: Conscious mind
    aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions
  6. 3 Divisions of Consciousness: Unconscious mind
    thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness
  7. Parts of Personality (Freud): Id
    part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious
  8. Parts of Personality (Freud): The Id operates according to the________.
    Pleasure Principle
  9. Parts of Personality (Freud): What is the Pleasure Principle?
    • principle by which the id functions
    • the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse
    • seeks to avoid pain or unpleasure
  10. Parts of Personality (Freud): The id contains ______ the primal sexuality and pursuit of sensual gratification driving human behavior.
  11. Parts of Personality (Freud): Ego
    part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.
  12. Parts of Personality (Freud): The ego's control of the pleasure-seeking activity of the id in order to meet the demands of the external world is known as the __________.
    reality principle
  13. Parts of Personality (Freud): Superego
    part of the personality that acts as a moral center
  14. Parts of Personality (Freud): What are the two parts of the superego?
    • Ego ideal
    • Conscience
  15. Parts of Personality (Freud): Ego ideal
    part of the superego that contains standards for moral behavior
  16. Parts of Personality (Freud): Conscience
    part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how well behavior matches or does not match the superego
  17. Psychological defense mechanisms
    unconscious distortions of a person's perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety
  18. What are examples of psychological defense mechanisms?
    • Denial
    • Repression
    • Rationalization
    • Projection
  19. Freud's Psychosexual stages
    five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child
  20. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Oral Stage
    • first stage occurring in the first year of life
    • the mouth is the erogenous zone
    • conflict: weaning (off oral behaviors: bottle, binkie, thumb sucking, etc.)
    • id dominated
  21. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Oral Fixation
    can result when a child is weaned to soon or to late
  22. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal Stage
    • 1 - 3 years
    • anus is the erogenous zone
    • conflict: toilet training
    • ego develops
  23. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal expulsive personality
    fixated in the anal stage and is messy, destructive, and hostile
  24. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Anal retentive personality
    fixated in the anal stage and is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn
  25. Freud's Psychosexual stage: Phallic stage
    • third stage
    • ~ age 3 - 6 years
    • the child discovers sexual feelings
    • superego develops
  26. Freud's Psychosexual stages: Oedipus complex
    situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a male child develops a sexual attraction to his mother and jealousy towards his father
  27. Freud's Psychosexual stages: What is the Oedipus complex for female children?
    Electra Complex
  28. Freud's Psychosexual stages: Latency
    • fourth stage
    • occurs during the school years
    • the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways
  29. Freud's Psychosexual stages: Genital
    sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets
  30. Modern Psychoanalytic Theory: Current research has found support for what two parts of Freud's theory?
    • Defense mechanisms
    • Concept of an unconscious mind that can influence conscious behavior
  31. Behaviorism and Personality
    define personality as a set of learned responses or habits
  32. Behaviorism: What are habits?
    sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic
  33. Behaviorism: How is personality shaped from a Behaviorist's point of view?
    based on learned patterns directly (positive/negative reinforcement) or indirectly (observation/modeling)
  34. Behaviorism: Social Cognitive Learning Theorists
    importance of both the influences of other people's behaviors and of a person's own expectancies on learning
  35. Behaviorism: Social Cognitive View
    learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models
  36. Behaviorism: Reciprocal Determinism
    Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior
  37. Behaviorism: Self-efficacy
    individual's perception of how effective a behavior will be in any particular circumstance (NOT the same as self-esteem)
  38. Humanism: Perspective
    the "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice
  39. Humanism: How was this perspective developed?
    as a reaction against the negativity of psychoanalysis and the deterministic nature of behaviorism
  40. Humanism: Maslow and Rogers Main characteristics
  41. Measuring Personality: Projective Tests
    personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind
  42. Measuring Personality: Rorschach Inkblot Test
    projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous stimuli
  43. Measuring Personality: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli
  44. Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test?
    Image Upload 1
    Thematic Apperception Test
  45. Rorschach or Thematic Apperception Test?
    Image Upload 2
    Rorschach Inkblot Test
Card Set
psych220 CH 13
Psychology 220 Chapter 13 final notecards