psych220 CH 8

  1. Attachment Theory
    Based on interactions with primary caregiver which are essential and will lay the foundation for the view the child will later have about the world.
  2. What are the four types of attachment?
    • Secure
    • Insecure/Ambivalent
    • Insecure/Avoidant
    • Insecure/Disorganized
  3. What is temperament?
    A pattern of emotional response and behavioral reactivity to situations and stressors
  4. What are the three types of temperament?
    • Easy
    • Difficult
    • Slow to warm up
  5. Of the three types of temperaments, which are most children associated with?
    Slow to warm up
  6. What are the 3 research designs used to study development?
    • Cross-Sectional Design
    • Longitudinal Design
    • Cross-Sequential Design
  7. Cross-Sectional Design
    Different participants of various ages are compared at one point in time to determine age-related differences
  8. Example of Cross-Sectional Design
    • All groups studied in the same year
    • Group 1 - age 20
    • Group 2 - age 40
    • Group 3 - age 60
  9. Longitudinal Design
    The same participants are studied at various ages to determine age-related changes
  10. Example of Longitudinal Design
    Same group of participants throughout study.

    • Study 1 - age 20     Year: 1971
    • Study 2 - age 40     Year: 1991
    • Study 3 - age 60     Year: 2011
  11. Cross-Sequential Design
    Different participants of various ages are compared at several points in time, to determine both age-related differences and age-related changes
  12. Example of Cross-Sequential Design
    Two groups during each study and same group studied at different times.

    • Study 1 - Group 1: age 20        Year: 2011
    •              Group 2: age 40         Year: 2011

    • Study 2 - Group 1: age 25        Year: 2016
    •              Group 2: age 45         Year: 2016
  13. Nature vs Nurture
    The argument between the influence on a person through genetics (nature) or the environment (nurture).
  14. Nature
    the influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
  15. Nurture
    the influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions
  16. Three periods of pregnancy
    • Germinal
    • Embryonic
    • Fetal
  17. Period of Pregnancy - Germinal
    • First 2 weeks
    • Zygote implants in uterus
  18. Zygote
    In sexual reproduction, the product of the union of sperm and egg.
  19. Period of Pregnancy - Embryonic
    • 2 - 8 weeks after fertilization
    • major organs and structures develop
    • embryo is vulnerable to teratogens
  20. fertilization
    The penetration of the egg by the sperm and fusion of genetic materials to result in the development of an embryo.
  21. Embryo
    An unborn or unhatched offspring in the process of development
  22. teratogen
    Any agent or substance which can cause malformation of an embryo or birth defects
  23. Period of Pregnancy - Fetal
    • 8 weeks to birth
    • Tremendous growth
    • Baby felt in 4th - 5th month
  24. When are miscarriages most likely to happen?
    In the first 3 months
  25. Fetus
    An unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception
  26. Piaget's 4 stages
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete Operations
    • Formal Operations
  27. Piaget's 4 stages - Sensorimotor & Ages
    • Birth - 2 years
    • Child explores world using senses and ability to move.
    • Child develops object permanence and understands that concepts and mental images represent objects, people, and events.
  28. Piaget's 4 stages - Preoperational & Ages
    • 2 - 7 years
    • Young child mentally represents and refers to objects and events verbally or with pictures.
    • Young child can pretend.
    • Young child is egocentric.
    • Young child is not capable of centration.
  29. What is egocentric?
    Centered in or arising from a person's own existence or perspective
  30. What is centration?
    the tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others
  31. Piaget's 4 stages - Concrete Operations & Ages
    • 7 - 12 years old
    • Child is capable of centration, reverse thinking and classify objects based on characteristics.
    • Child can think logically and understand analogies but only about concrete events.
    • Very interested in rules. Loves board games usually.
  32. Piaget's 4 stages - Formal Operations & Ages
    • 12 - adulthood
    • People at this stage are capable of abstract reasoning about hypothetical events or situations, think about logical possibilities, use abstract analogies, and systematically examine and test hypotheses.
    • Not everyone can eventually reason in all these ways.
  33. Piaget: Children form mental concepts or (1)_______ as they experience new situations and events. Using these (2)________ when introduced to new things is called (3)__________.
    • 1. schemas
    • 2. schemas
    • 3. assimilation
  34. What is accommodation?
    The process of adapting or adjusting to someone or something
  35. Vygotsky - scaffolding
    the process in which a more skilled learner gives help to a less skilled learner, reducing the amount of help as the less skilled learner becomes more capable
  36. Vygotsky - Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
    difference between what a child can do alone and what that same child can do with the help of a teacher
  37. Harlow study - Comfort Contact
    • Monkeys separated from mother at birth
    • 2 surrogate mothers - provide food and warmth
    • Result: monkeys spent all their time with surrogate that was soft and comfortable
  38. Erikson's 8 stages and ages
    • Infant: birth - 1 year
    • Toddler: 1 - 3 years
    • Preschool Age: 3 - 5 years
    • Elementary School Age: 5 - 12 years
    • Adolescence: 13 - early 20s
    • Early Adulthood: 20s - 30s
    • Middle Adulthood: 40s - 50s
    • Late Adulthood: 60s and beyond
  39. Erikson Developmental Crisis: Infant (birth - 1 year)
    • Trust vs. Mistrust
    • based on whether or not their needs - such as food and comfort - are met
    • When needs are met, child expects life to be pleasant and trust people, or they do not learn to trust.
  40. Erikson Developmental Crisis: Toddler (1 - 3 years)
    • Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
    • Child realizes they can direct their own emotions.
    • Child learns to become independent or learns self-doubt and shame for being unsuccessful.
  41. Erikson Developmental Crisis: Preschool Age (3 - 5 years)
    • Initiative vs Guilt
    • Challenged to be responsible and control own behavior; such as exuberance when at a restaurant.
    • If successful in being responsible, the child feels capable and develops initiative and if not becomes anxious and guilty.
  42. Erikson Developmental Crisis: Elementary School Age (5 - 12 years)
    • Industry vs Inferiority
    • Child is learning social and academic skills. Social comparison is a primary source of information.
    • When successful obtaining new skills, child becomes competent and gains good self-esteem, or feels incompetent, inadequate and inferior.
  43. Erikson Developmental Crisis: Adolescence (13 - early 20s)
    • Identity vs Role Confusion
    • Faced with deciding who or what they want to be based on occupation, beliefs, attitudes and behavior patterns.
    • Success by defining a role for themselves and strong identity, or fails when they are confused and withdrawn or wants to blend in with the crowd.
  44. Erikson Developmental Crisis: Early Adulthood (20s - 30s)
    • Intimacy vs Isolation
    • the ability to share who you are as a person with another person in a close, committed relationship.
    • Success leads to having satisfying intimate relationship, or failure leads to isolation from others and loneliness.
  45. Erikson Developmental crisis: Middle Adulthood (40s - 50s)
    • Generativity vs Stagnation
    • challenge to be creative and productive of the next generation
    • Success leads to creative and productive person and considerate of family, community and future generations.
    • Failure leads to passive, self-centered with feelings of not doing anything for the next generation and that the world is no better off from their being alive.
  46. Erikson's Developmental Crisis: Late Adulthood (60s and beyond)
    • Ego Integrity vs Despair
    • Whether a person will reach wisdom, spiritual tranquility, a sense of wholeness and acceptance of his/her life.
    • Success leads to a person enjoying life without fear of death; however, failure leaves a person feeling empty and fearful of death.
  47. What is Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
    • A theory that explains the development of moral reasoning.
    • there is a big difference between knowing what we ought to do versus our actual actions
    • Kohlberg's scale is about how people justify behaviors and his stages
    • are not a method of ranking how moral someone's behavior is.
  48. Kohlberg's 3 levels of morality
    • Preconventional morality
    • Conventional morality
    • Postconventional morality
  49. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Morality: Preconventional Morality
    • Typically very young children
    • Behavior that is rewarded is right and that which is punished is wrong.
    • e.g., a child steals a toy from another and does not get caught does not see the action as wrong.
  50. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Morality: Conventional Morality
    • older children, adolescents, and most adults
    • Conformity to social norms is right and nonconformity is wrong.
    • e.g., A child criticizes his/her parent for speeding because speeding is against the law.
  51. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Morality: meaning of Conventional* Morality
    The term conventional* refers to general standards or norms of behavior for a particular society, which will differ from one social group or culture to another.
  52. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Morality: Postconventional Morality
    • about 20% of the adult population
    • Moral principles determined by the person are used to determine right and wrong and may disagree with societal norms.
    • e.g., A reporter who wrote a controversial story goes to jail rather than reveal the source's identity.
Card Set
psych220 CH 8
Psychology 220 chapter 8 finals notecards