First World War

  1. German Failure for rapid victory in west
    • Expectation of war ending by Christmas
    • Not clear who was winning
    • Failure of Schlieftan Plan
    • Belgium assumed not to fight back
    • First Battle of the Marne - French won
    • German retreat - Defense mode (build trenches)
  2. War in Sept. 1914: west, east, Serbian front, Africa, east pacific
    • west - france
    • east - russia
    • Serbian Front
    • African - Colonies
    • East Asia - Japan threaten China; Japanese colonies
    • Pacific - taking islands in Australia
  3. Government search for new ways of victory
    • Bring in neutral nations or knock out of enemy alliance (Promise of land, aid revolutions)
    • New military offense (trench warfare)
    • Negotiate to end war - Woodrow Wilson wants peace w/o victory - but a modern war - so failure
    • War of Production - entire economy used for war; used conscription (draft); debt (off gold standard); blockade submarine - mines
  4. Turnip War
    • 1916-1917 Germany
    • Food provisions decrease because of blockade
    • But turnip widely available
  5. Germany's decision to restart Unconditional Submarine Warfare
    • Want to blockade Britain - any passes line, is torpedoed
    • Britain/France reliant on USA (major creditor)
    • HMS Lusitania sinks - had US citizen
    • Submarine Warfare canceled
  6. February Revolution Russia
    Tsar Nicholas II removed
  7. American entry into war
    • Germany Sinks US cargo ship
    • US breaks diplomatic relations with Germany
    • US learns of Zimmerman telegram - published
    • Wilson asks Congress to declare war - approved April 6
  8. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)
    Russia and Germany sign Peace treaty
  9. Germany's Summer Offensive in West 1918
    • Bolsheviks didn't have full control
    • Germany took advantage and took land easily
  10. Armistice November 1918
    • Austria sign armistice- removes force
    • Germany signs armistice
    • Removes Kaiser Wilhelm II and formally ends war
  11. Paris Peace Conference 1919
    • US, France, Britain, Italy agree upon treaty
    • Many want for Germany to pay almost all cost - may cause another war
    • Woodrow suggest League of Nation - established
  12. Treaty of Versailles
    • Germany has to accept loss of territory
    • restriction of military development
    • pay for massive reparations
    • accept full responsibility of war
Card Set
First World War
first world war