Week 1

  1. Information collected in narrative form.
    Qualitative data
  2. Information collected in numeric form.
    Quantitative data
  3. Variable hypothesized cause of or influence on the dependent variable.
    Independent Variable
  4. Variable hypothesized to depend on or be caused by another variable; the outcome of interest.
    Dependent Variable
  5. Having a finite number of values between any two points.
  6. Able to take on an infinite (in theory) range of values between two points on a continuum.
  7. The assignment of numbers to objects to designate the quantity of an attribute, according to specified rules.
  8. Lowest level of measurement; involving the assignment of characteristics into categories with no particular order.
  9. Level of measurement that yields a rank ordering of a variable along a specified dimension.
  10. Level of measurement that involves assigning numbers to indicate both the ordering on an attribute and the distance between different amounts of the attribute.
  11. Level of measurement of attributes in which there are equal distances between score units and a true meaningful zero point.
  12. Collective term for interval or ratio data.
  13. Statistics used to describe and summarize data.
    Descriptive Statistics
  14. Statisticsthat rely on the laws of probability to help researchers draw conclusions about sample characteristics in terms of their relationship to populations.
    Inferential Statistics
  15. The entire set of individuals having some characteristic.
  16. A subset of a population selected for study.
  17. Systematic array of data values together with a count of the number of times each value was obtained.
    Frequency distribution
  18. The count of the number of cases with a given score value.
    Absolute frequency
  19. A grouping of continuous variable data such that is can be displayed in a grouped frequency distribution.
    Class intervals
  20. A graphical display of a frequency distribution, generally for a
    categorical variable.
    Bar graph/chart
  21. A graphical display showing a relative frequency distribution in a circle.
    Pie Chart
  22. A graphical display of a frequency distribution in which dots connected by a straight line indicate the number of times a score value occurs.
    Frequency polygon
  23. Characteristic
    of a frequency distribution describing the number of peaks.
  24. Having one peak.
  25. A distribution with two sides that are mirror images; a non-skewed
    Symmetric distribution
  26. A distribution that is asymmetric.
    Skewed distribution
  27. A distribution with a pointed, thin peak.
  28. A distribution with a low, wide-spread peak.
  29. Theoretical distribution that is symmetrical, unimodal, not too peaked, nor too flat.
    Normal distribution
  30. Indexes that come from the center of a distribution, describing a “typical” value.
    Measures of Central Tendency
  31. The score or value that occurs most frequently in a distribution.
  32. The exact middle score in a distribution; the score above and below which 50% of the scores lie.
  33. The arithmetic average of a distribution, calculated by summing all scores and dividing by the number of scores.
  34. The difference between the highest and lowest value in a distribution.
  35. A descriptive statistic for measuring the degree of variability in a set
    of score
    Standard deviation
  36. A measure of dispersion of a distribution; equal to the standard deviation squared.
  37. Scores or values expressed in terms of standard deviations away from the mean.
    Standard scores
  38. Standard scores when the distribution is normal.
    Z scores
  39. Two-dimensional table that displays a crosstabulation of two categorical variables.
    Contingency table
  40. Two-dimensional table that displays a crosstabulation of two categorical variables.
    Contingency table
  41. A relationship between two continuous variables such that, when plotted in a scatterplot, a straight line is formed.
    Linear relationship
  42. A graph depicting the relationship between two continuous variables.
  43. An index that summarizes the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two variables.
    Correlation coefficient
  44. A relationship in which high values of one variable are associated with high values in another variable.
    Positive relationship
  45. A relationship in which high values of one variable are associated with low values in another variable.
    Negative relationship
  46. Designates the magnitude and direction of the relationship between two measured on at least the interval level.
    Pearson’s r
Card Set
Week 1
vocab for week 1