Kingdom & Behavior Notes

  1. Kingdom Monera
  2. Five characteristics of Kingdom Monera
    • Prokaryotes
    • Autotrophic (blue green bacteria)
    • Heterotropica
    • unicellular
    • Found throughout the world
  3. Shapes of Bacteria
    • Round
    • Rod 
    • Spiral
  4. Kingdom Protista characteristics
    • Eukaryotic
    • Unicellular or multicellular
    • heterotrophic or autotrophic
    • water or body fluids
    • "dumping ground"
    • Three groups
  5. Fungus-like protists
    • Heterotropic
    • Don't move
    • Water mold, slim mold, potato blight
  6. Plant like Protists
    • Autotrophs
    • unicellular & multicellular
    • Ex. euglena, diatoms, seaweed
  7. Animal like protists
    • heterotrophic
    • classified by how they move
    • sometimes called the protozoans
    • Paramecium, amoeba, plasmodi
  8. Contractile vacuole
    • Used b y paramecium to remove excess water
    • (freshwater protists)
  9. Cilia
    • hair like structures used for movement
    • (freshwater protists)
  10. Flagella
    • whip like tail used for movement
    • (freshwater protists)_
  11. Pseudopods
    • "false foot" used for streaming of cytoplasm for movement; also used to engulf food
    • (freshwater protists)
  12. Phototaxis
    • Protista adaptive behavior = moving towards (positive) or away (negative) from light
    • Example - Euglena eyespot for photosynthesis
  13. Chemotaxis
    • Moving toward (+) or away (-) from chemicals like food or toxin
    • Phototaxis and chemotaxis also can occur in bacteria and animals
  14. 4 characteristics of Kingdom Fungi
    • Eukaroyotic
    • Heterotropic
    • cell wall composed of Chitin
    • Uni- or multi cellular
  15. Five characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
    • Eukaryotic
    • autotrophic
    • multicellular
    • true roots, stems & leaves
    • cell wall composed of cellulose
  16. Vascular classification of:
    moss & liverworts
    • non-vascular
    • vascular
    • vascular
    • vascular
  17. Mosses have no ___ tissue, so materials travel between cells or the environment using ____ or ____.  Plants must live in _____ locations and stay small, close to the ground
    vascular;  osmosis;  diffusion;  moist
  18. Ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms all use ___ and ___ to transport ___ and ____
    Xylem; phloem; food ;  water
  19. Excretion is the removal of nitrogen ____.   Plants ____  waste that they produce in _____ and do not excrete waste _____
    wasters; store; vacuoles; animals
  20. Specialized salt glands
    How plants get rid of excess salt (for plants that live in salt water)
  21. Where cellular respiration occurs in plants
    Mitochondria (glucose to ATP)
  22. SToma
    where the exchange of CO2, O2 and H20 occurs in plant leaves
  23. Xylem & Phloem
    Transport water up (xylem) and food down (phloem) the plant
  24. Plant nutrition
    Autotrophs; make their own through photosynthesis
  25. Glucose
    Used as energy by plants to make other molecules like starch, protein or fats
  26. Phosphorus, potassium & nitrogren
    Examples of materials needed by plants to help make food
  27. Reproduction in plants
    • Plants can reproduce sexually or asexually
    • Example of asexual - cuttings - allows for rapid and frequent reproduction
  28. Sexual reproduction in plants increases _____
    Genetic diversity
  29. methods of sexual reproduction in plants
    • spores
    • gametes (egg & sperm)
    • seeds
  30. Spore
    A unit of asexual reproduction and is one part of the life cyle
  31. Gamete
    are the units of sexual reproduction
  32. Moss & fern sexual reproduction
    sperm swims to egg
  33. Gymnosperm and angiosperms sexual reproduction
    sperm is enclosed in pollen and gets to female part of plant by wind or other aniimals
  34. Ferns
  35. Exposed versus enclosed seeds
    Gymnosperms / angiosperms (see diagram)
  36. What do seeds need to develop
    warmth and moisture
  37. What are the two main problems with life on land for plants
    dehydration and support
  38. What structures of the plant overcome the problems on land of support and hydration?
    • Vascular tissue (tranport food and water & support)
    • Cuticle (waxy covering)
    • Pollen (protects sperm from drying out; no need for water for fertilization)
    • seed coat (protects seed from drying out)
  39. Purpose of flower and fruit
    • Flowers attract pollinators
    • Fruit aid in seed dispersal
  40. 4 characteristics of Kingdom Animalia
    • Eukaryotic
    • multicellular
    • heterotrophic
    • able to move at some stage of their life
  41. Simplest animals ___
    Most complex animals ____
    sponges;  mammals
  42. Invertebrates vs. vertebrates
    Without backbones / with backbones
  43. Transport in simple animals uses ____ and _____
    Osmosis; diffusion
  44. Clams have _____ circulatory systems with heart but no veins or arteries, but only blood that transports food, waste and gasses
  45. Most animals have ___ circulatory systems with ____ and _____
    closed; heart; arteries
  46. excretion is the removal of _______ wastes
    Nitrogen wastes
  47. Nitrogen wastes are produced when ____ are broken down
  48. Excretion can also help maintain ____ balance
  49. Kidneys, nephridia, flame cells and diffusion are used by animals to _____
    remove toxic wastes
  50. Marine animals have special glands for _____
    removing excess salt
  51. Buffers
    help blood maintain constant pH of 7.4
  52. When you exercise, CO2 in your blood increases and ____ lowers
  53. Respiration is the exchange of ____, ____ and ____ between organism and atmosphere
    CO2, H20 and O2
  54. Respiratory surfaces must be ____ and ____ so that gasses can ______
    thin; moist; diffuse
  55. Three main respiratory systems
    • Directly through membranes or skin (earthworms)
    • gills (acquatic organisms)
    • Lungs (terrestial organisms)
  56. Nutrition in animals - all animals are ____
  57. Carnivors; insectivores; herbivores
    meat, insects; plants
  58. animal teeth and mouth parts vary by ____
    What they eat
  59. Characteristics of carnivor mouth and digestive tract
    Teeth or beak; short digestive tract
  60. charactericstics of herbivore digestive system and mouth
    specialized grinding teeth; long digestive tract
  61. Most animals reproduce _____, with a few simple animals reproducing ______
    sexual; asexual
  62. Most aquatic animals have _____ fertilization, terrestirial animals have ______ fertilization
    external; internal
  63. examples of asexual reproduction in animals
    budding in hydra;

    regeneration in flatworms and starfish
  64. Acquatic animals have external _____ and then _____ development;  Many ___ are produced since many will be ______
    fertization;  external; eggs; eaten
  65. Monotremes
    • non-placental
    • partial placental
    • placental
  66. Placenta
    organ that connects the fetus to the mother; exchange fo gasses, food and waste
  67. Major problems for animal adaption to life on land
    dehydration, support and tempurature
  68. overcoming problems on land for animals
    • thidck outer covering like fur, scales feathers
    • lungs
    • skeleton
    • internal fertilization
    • amniote eggs (bird and reptiles)
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Kingdom & Behavior Notes
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