Qtr 3 Head and Neck Neurology Exam 3

  1. What is the actual cause of the clinical presentation in pseudodementia?
    Undiagnosed depression
  2. What is the major clinical presentation of dementia?
  3. What is the most common insidius vascular cause of dementia?
    Binswanger's Disease
  4. What area is damaged in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
    • mammillary bodies
    • Fornix
    • Wall of third ventricle
  5. What percent of Dementia is reversible?
    10 percent
  6. What does Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cause?
    Spongiform encephalopathies
  7. What causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
    Prion (infectious protein)
  8. How long does it take Creutzfeld-Jakob disease to cause complete dementia?
    usually within 6 months
  9. What is apraxia?
    Damage to the parietal lobe causes an inability to execute voluntary motor movement despite normal muscle function
  10. What is the inability to recognize by sight while recognizing it through another modality?
    Visual agnosia
  11. What is Multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager Syndrome)?
    impairments autonomic functions, has parkinson's like presentations
  12. What are the areas of involvement in huntington's disease? What is the age of onset?
    • Caudate Nucleus
    • Frontal lobe
    • Temporal lobe
    • 35-50 years of age
  13. What chromosome holds the mutant gene for huntington's disease?
  14. What is the probable mechanism cell death in huntingtons's disease?
    Glutamate excitotoxicity
  15. What disease follows group A Beta-hemolytic strep infection (rheumatic fever)?
    • Sydenham's Chorea
    • (St. Vitus' Dance)
  16. Explain Wilson's disease (Hepatolenticular degeneration)
    • mutation of the long arm of chromosome 13 causes copper to not be metablized which initially affects the liver then putamen)
    • onset is teenage to young adult
  17. What is the cause of tardive dyskinesia?
    neuroleptic medications damage dopaminergic transmission in the brain
  18. What are the signs of basal ganglionic dysfunction?
    • Rigidity¬†
    • Dyskinesias
    • Difficulty startying and stoping movement
    • normal voluntary muscle strengh and stretch reflexes
    • No muscular atrophy
  19. Which of the following is not part of the basal ganglia: Caudate nucleus, putamen, hypothalamus, globus pallidus, amygdala, claustrum?
  20. What part of the basil ganglia constitutes the neuostriatum?
    • Caudate nucleus
    • Putamen
  21. Where does the basal ganglia send to and receive information from?
  22. What is the main function of the basal ganglia?
    modulation of movement
  23. What is athetosis and what causes it?
    • it is spontaneous and continuous writhing movements¬†
    • Caused by a lesion to globus pallidus
  24. What is hemiballism and what causes it?
    • sudden flailing movments of the limbs
    • caused by lesion to the subthalamus
  25. What is chorea and what part of the basal ganglia is damaged to cause it?
    • Quick jerky movements (dance like)
    • Lesion to the Putamen
  26. What are the two ways the striatum communicates with the thalamus?
    • Direct : overall excitatory
    • Indirect: overall inhibitory
  27. Where is the lesion in huntington's disease?
    Corpus Striatum
  28. How does dopamine effect the direct and indirect pathways?
    • 1.Direct- excitatory
    • 2.
    • Indirect- inhibitory
  29. Which hemisphere is more strongly associated with language?
    Left Hemisphere
  30. What would a damage of Broca's area cause?
  31. What are the signs of damage to Wernicke's area?
    • Difficulty understanding language¬†
    • Speech is preserved but illogical
  32. What disease can cause a lesion to the hippocampus and what symptoms would a patient present with?
    • Herpies Simplex
    • Cannot form new memories
  33. What structures are involved in the memory circuit?
    Hippocampus-->Fornix-->mammilary bodies-->Anterior thalamic nucleus
  34. What are the clinical symptoms of an TIA in the carotid territory?
    • Amaurosis Fagas (monocular blindness)
    • Hemiparesis
    • aphasia
  35. Where is the occlusion in weber syndrome?
    posterior cerebellar artery
  36. Where is the occlusion in Wallenberg syndrome and what are the symptoms?
    • Posterior inferior cerebellar artery
    • Hoarseness, vertigo, nausea, numbness, clumsiness
  37. What is the most common pyogenic infection?
    • Acute suppurative meningitis
    • (Leptomeningitis)
  38. What does poliomyelitis affect?
    Anterior horn cells
  39. What are the formations called in rabies?
    Cytoplasmic inclusions via Negri Body
  40. What neurological disorder is similar to alzheimer's disease but involves only the vrontal and temporal lobe? women more frequently than men.
    Picks disease
  41. What artery is damaged in epidural hemmorrhage?
    Middle meningeal artery
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Qtr 3 Head and Neck Neurology Exam 3
dimentia ect