What is the actual cause of the clinical presentation in pseudodementia?
What is the major clinical presentation of dementia?
What is the most common insidius vascular cause of dementia?
What area is damaged in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?
- mammillary bodies
- Wall of third ventricle
What percent of Dementia is reversible?
What does Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cause?
What causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
Prion (infectious protein)
How long does it take Creutzfeld-Jakob disease to cause complete dementia?
usually within 6 months
What is apraxia?
Damage to the parietal lobe causes an inability to execute voluntary motor movement despite normal muscle function
What is the inability to recognize by sight while recognizing it through another modality?
What is Multiple system atrophy (Shy-Drager Syndrome)?
impairments autonomic functions, has parkinson's like presentations
What are the areas of involvement in huntington's disease? What is the age of onset?
- Caudate Nucleus
- Frontal lobe
- Temporal lobe
- 35-50 years of age
What chromosome holds the mutant gene for huntington's disease?
What is the probable mechanism cell death in huntingtons's disease?
What disease follows group A Beta-hemolytic strep infection (rheumatic fever)?
- Sydenham's Chorea
- (St. Vitus' Dance)
Explain Wilson's disease (Hepatolenticular degeneration)
- mutation of the long arm of chromosome 13 causes copper to not be metablized which initially affects the liver then putamen)
- onset is teenage to young adult
What is the cause of tardive dyskinesia?
neuroleptic medications damage dopaminergic transmission in the brain
What are the signs of basal ganglionic dysfunction?
- Difficulty startying and stoping movement
- normal voluntary muscle strengh and stretch reflexes
- No muscular atrophy
Which of the following is not part of the basal ganglia: Caudate nucleus, putamen, hypothalamus, globus pallidus, amygdala, claustrum?
What part of the basil ganglia constitutes the neuostriatum?
Where does the basal ganglia send to and receive information from?
What is the main function of the basal ganglia?
modulation of movement
What is athetosis and what causes it?
- it is spontaneous and continuous writhing movements
- Caused by a lesion to globus pallidus
What is hemiballism and what causes it?
- sudden flailing movments of the limbs
- caused by lesion to the subthalamus
What is chorea and what part of the basal ganglia is damaged to cause it?
- Quick jerky movements (dance like)
- Lesion to the Putamen
What are the two ways the striatum communicates with the thalamus?
- Direct : overall excitatory
- Indirect: overall inhibitory
Where is the lesion in huntington's disease?
How does dopamine effect the direct and indirect pathways?
- 1.Direct- excitatory
- Indirect- inhibitory
Which hemisphere is more strongly associated with language?
What would a damage of Broca's area cause?
What are the signs of damage to Wernicke's area?
- Difficulty understanding language
- Speech is preserved but illogical
What disease can cause a lesion to the hippocampus and what symptoms would a patient present with?
- Herpies Simplex
- Cannot form new memories
What structures are involved in the memory circuit?
Hippocampus-->Fornix-->mammilary bodies-->Anterior thalamic nucleus
What are the clinical symptoms of an TIA in the carotid territory?
- Amaurosis Fagas (monocular blindness)
Where is the occlusion in weber syndrome?
posterior cerebellar artery
Where is the occlusion in Wallenberg syndrome and what are the symptoms?
- Posterior inferior cerebellar artery
- Hoarseness, vertigo, nausea, numbness, clumsiness
What is the most common pyogenic infection?
- Acute suppurative meningitis
What does poliomyelitis affect?
Anterior horn cells
What are the formations called in rabies?
Cytoplasmic inclusions via Negri Body
What neurological disorder is similar to alzheimer's disease but involves only the vrontal and temporal lobe? women more frequently than men.
What artery is damaged in epidural hemmorrhage?
Middle meningeal artery