Personality is dependent of several factors, including?
- 1. unique set of genes inherited from parents
- 2. shaped by family in one is raised
- 3. the surrounding environment
- 4. culture and subculture which influence the individual
What does the type A, B and type C personalities refer to?
Type A personality a/k/a coronary artery disease-prone: hostile, aggressive, impatient - involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more in less time, and if need be against opposing forces of others
Type B personality a/k/a opposite of Type A: less driven, relaxed, takes life at an easier pace.
Type C personality a/k/a cancer-prone personality: "nice," passive, overcooperative, serious, anxious, painfully sensitive and apologetic
What are the toxic core behaviors?
Major health risks of all behavior types-traits which predispose those with these tendencies to heart disease and high blood pressure:
1. Free-floating hostility: permanent, deep-seated hostility which hovers quietly until some trivial incident causes a burst of hostility. To experience anger, irratibility, and resentment in response to common events (expressive hostility - frequent expressions of anger and annoyance, arguing in a loud voice, and potential for physical aggression.
2. Anger - particularly unexpressed anger, from irritability to aggravation to rage to fury.
3. Cynicism - deep mistrust of others
4. Suspiciousness - constantly on guard against the actions and slights of others.
5. Excessive self-involvement - Peppered references to I, me, mine
What are some of the effects of an exaggerated stress response within one’s coronary prone behavior?
The body is on constant alert -system is constantly bathed in excessive catecholamines, adrenaline (epinephrine), testosterone, estrogen, thyroxine, and insulin.
1. Norepinephrine causes microvascular drainage into blood vessels, creating atherosclerotic plaque.
2. Coronary artery spasms futher narrow the blood vessels supplying oxygen to the heart.
3. Blood pressure increases, making the heart work harder and oxygen consumption. Increases in norepinephrine constrict blood vessels causing hypertension.
4. Blood platelets become more sticky, which leads to atherosclerosis and further obstructs the narrowed arteries - increases CHD risk
5. All of the above contributes to an oxygen imbalance which can result in a heart attack.
What are some of the elements that alleviate the harmful effects of stress?
1. Develop awareness of own needs.
2. Discover your inner guide, awareness of innermost feelings and emotions
3. Reframe your ideas about your feelings.
4. Learn the skills of emotional expression.
5. Take charge of your medical care
6. Get as much social support as possible.
7. Work through feelings of hopelessness
8. Cultivate a fighting spirit with the willingness to face challenges head-on.
What is hardiness?
Hardiness is defined by the three C's: commitment, control and challenge.
Committment - an attitude of purpose and meaning; making a difference to what is happening around you
Control - the belief you can influence outcomes instead of becoming a victim
Challenge - the belief that change provides an opportunity for growth instead of believing change is threatening.
What is a stress buffer?
Elements which alleviate the harmful effects of stress. Some factors include:
- social support
- a sense of control
- physical fitness
- a sense of humor
- problem-solving coping style
What are some effective techniques for managing and transforming anger and hostility?
- 1. Facing situation early
- 2. Reframe negative thinking patterns
- 3. Speak truth with kindness
- 4. Healthy expression of your point of view, uplifting the other
What is the difference between anger and hostility?
Anger is a temporary emotion, combining physiological and emotional arousal.
Hostility is an ongoing accumulation of anger and irritation.
What are two classic unhealthy ways to express anger?
1. misdirection (kicking the cat)
2. suppression (dulls all emotions)
What are some examples of unhealthy ways to express anger?
- 1. miscommunication
- 2. emotional distancing
- 3. conflict escalation
- 4. rehearsing grivances
- 5. hostile disposition
- 6. angry habits
- 7. making a bad situation worse
- 8. losing self-esteem
- 9. losing respect of others
What are some causes of anger?
- –Frustration of physical or psychological restraint
- –Forced to do something against your will
- –Being taken advantage of
- –Being insulted/ridiculed
- –Having plans defeated
- –A result from primary emotions, such as distress, sorrow or fear
What are physiological reactions that accompany anger?
Because of the initial fight or flight response:
- 1. rapid heartbeat and respiration
- 2. blood pressure rises
- 3. digestive process slows
- 4. muscles tense
also headaches, flushing of face, neck and chest, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, and suppressed immune system
What are some of the consequences on the body due to chronic hostility?
1. Causes constant, unending release of stress hormones, especially norepinephrine and when continuous, causes/exascerbates pathologies and chronic conditions
2. Weakens the parasympathetic branch of the CNS, which (in healthy individuals) functions to calm the body down after an emergency.
What are the three classifications of worriers?
- Nonworriers: people who worry less than an hour and a half each day
- Moderate worriers: people who worry between 10-50% of the day and may or may not be troubled by worrying
- Chronic worriers: people who worry more than eight hours a day
What are five things that may help reduce anxiety?
- 1.Learn to solve problems: Don’t jump from topic to topic, but contemplate exactly what you’ll do– have a plan
- 2.Create wiser, more rational ways of thinking: Become aware that situations themseleves do not stress you- but the way you think about those situation does
- 3.Let go of catastrophizing: worries is like practicing failure. Practice visualizing success instead
- 4. Focus on what’s going on right now: Stay with the present moment. You can’t control the past or the future, which is what you worry about the most. Worry is always future-oriented so focus on what’s going on right now!
- 5. Set aside a ‘worry period’ :A specific period of time every day to focus on your worries and think of solutions to your problems.
What is worry? What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder characterized as?
Worry is the ‘thinking part’ of anxiety-- a preoccupation with potential dangers in the future
- Excessive worry about many things
- Worry that is present more than half the time for 6 or more months
Identify the difference between fear and anxiety.
- Fear usually occurs in response to an external threat
- Behaviors involve avoidance and an attempt to escape
- Anxiety can be present without the external stimulus
- Threats are perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable
What are the physical symptoms of a panic disorder?
- Similar physical symptoms as generalized anxiety disorder
- Sudden unexpected surges in anxiety
- Physical symptoms also include
- Cardiopulmonary (chest pain, heart pounding)
- Ear, Nose, Throat (dizziness, choking)
- Gastrointestinal (diarrhea, nausea, indigestion)
- Neurological (numbness, weakness)
- ANS (sweats, hot flashes/chills, tremors/shakes)
What is somaticizing?
- The body’s way of turning mental stress (usually anxiety) into physical manifestations Chronic worry can overwork and wear down the
- 1.Immune and hormonal systems
- 2.Nervous system
- 3.Circulatory system
What do we know about worry and the circulatory system?
Worriers are more likely to have arrhythmias
Worry has been related to high blood pressure in a number of studies
How can depression be defined?
1. A human affect caused by the disruption of normal life balance, loss, conflict or trauma
2. Depression can be a symptom of a physical illness or a side effect of medication
3. Clinical depression is a biological syndrome based on neurochemical abnormalities, often genetically-based
Depression can take on many forms, but usually involves what types of symptoms?
Characterized by a combination of symptoms that interfere with a person's ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.
*Is disabling and prevents a person from functioning normally.
*Some people may experience only a single episode within their lifetime, but more often a person may have multiple episodes.
What is chronic dysthymia?
*Characterized by long-term (2 years or longer) symptoms that may not be severe enough to disable a person but can prevent normal functioning or feeling well.
*People with dysthymia may also experience one or more episodes of major depression during their lifetimes.
According to the chapter, what are some causes of depression?
*Depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors.
*Depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain.
*Longstanding theories about depression suggest that important neurotransmitters—chemicals that brain cells use to communicate—are out of balance in depression. (serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine)
*Some types of depression tend to run in families.
*However, depression can occur in people without family histories of depression.
*Trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode.
When should depression be treated?
*The earlier that treatment, the more effective it is.
Once diagnosed, a person with depression can be treated in several ways. The most common treatments are medication and psychotherapy.
Which neurotransmitters are deficient in depression?
*Deficiencies in serotonin, NE, and dopamine
Depression involves the dysregulation of a number of physical functions, including?
*These are naturally released when pleasure centers are stimulated by pleasurable thoughts. But when these chemicals are deficient, one cannot feel pleasure.
*The punishment center is stimulated; dysphoria is experienced (unpleasantness, fear and loss of control)
*Other functions may be dysregulated, such as appetite, sex drive, sleep, metabolism, energy regulation , and immune and hormone functioning
What are some physiological effects of depression?
- *Stress hormones create structural brain changes
- *Cortisol shrinks brain neurons in the hippocampus
- *The severity and mortality of almost any disease are substantially worse if the patient is also depressed
- *A major coronary risk factor (comparable to smoking)
What have experiments shown regarding the amount of sunlight received?
*Winter increases the risk of depression in some
*Experiments have shown that the amount of sunlight received each day can have significant influence on depression and dealing with stress
*With less light some people tend to slow down, gain weight, sleep more and feel depressed
TX: Therapeutic light/ broad-spectrum light
What are some forms that social support can come in?
- Marriage and family
- Ties to friends and neighbors
- Civic engagement
- Relationships with coworkers
Social support can influence a number of physical processes including?
What is therapeutic humor?
What are three definitions of social support?
Social support is the degree to which a person’s basic social needs are met through interaction with other people
The resources (tangible and intangible) that others provide
A perception that you can count on others for help or in a crisis
According to the research, the benefits of social support result from what?
Differentiate between tangible and intangible support
The resources (tangible and intangible) that others provide
Tangible - physical resources
Intangible - A perception that you can count on others for help or in a crisis
How does social support enhance health?
- Social support enhances health by producing an overall positive feeling, a sense of self-esteem, stability, and control over one’s environment
- Social support as a buffer against stress
- The act of confiding
- People who confide enjoy better functioning of the immune system
- Higher counts of white blood cells and NK cells
Which researcher studied the relationship between social support and the common cold?
The more social roles, the greater the ability to resist the cold
What is the ‘grandmother effect’?
The idea is that if grandmothers help feed and care for their grandchildren, mothers have more time and resources to devote to having another baby. And the more grandchildren she has, the greater chance grandma has of passing on the genes that allowed to her to live to such an old age, Hawkes said. This would also help explain why humans live long past their fertile years, something that is unique compared to other primates.
What is therapeutic humor? Where is it used?
Any intervention that promotes health and wellness by stimulating a playful discovery, expression or appreciation of life’s incongruent situations
It is used in humor centers/ humor rooms/ humor breaks/ clown consults
provides comic relief from the severity of illness
What are some of the physical and psychological benefits of humor?
- Physical effects
- Strengthens immune system
- Improves the number and activity of NK cells
- Increases the number of B cells
- Boosts the number and activity of helper T cells
- Psychological benefits
- Replaces distressing emotions with pleasant ones
- Enhances the ability to connect with other people
- Increases energy
- Improves mood
What can having a humorous outlook do for individuals?
- Promotes creativity
- Improves decision-making skills
- Maintains a sense of balance
- A person w/out humor is like a wagon without springs- jolted by every pebble in the road
- Improves performance
- Relieves stress
- Improves coping abilities
- "Humor is the way we cope with living in an imperfect world with imperfect selves. When we can’t win, the best thing to do is to laugh about it."
Why do we say laugher is ‘an internal form of jogging’ or that laughter ‘exercises the cardiovascular system’?
- Muscles in face
- Glottis and Larynx open, relaxed and ready to vibrate
- Diaphragm tenses up
- Torso flexes
- Metabolism steps up, calories are burned, body temperature increases
- Air volume is increased, more oxygen is delivered to the body
- (once you finish laughing, many usually cough- a reaction that finishes clearing out the lungs)
- Nutrients and oxygen course through your arteries
- Improves digestion
During laughter, what is happening in the respiratory tract, muscles, and cardiovascular system?
- A complex physical process
- Clears mucus from lungs, increases oxygenation throughout the body, increases respiratory rate
- Provides muscle relaxation, breaks the pain/spasm cycle common in musculoskeletal disorders
- -CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
- Increases HR and BP temporarily, increases circulation, dilates arterial vascular system
What are the physiological benefits from laughter?
- Improves breathing
- Increases oxygen flow throughout the body
- Boost the levels of endorphins
- Improves pain tolerance and reduces pain Strengthens the immune system
- Tones the internal organs
What is the scientific definition of laughter?
A psychophysiological reflex, a successive, rhythmic, spasmodic expiration with open glottis and vibration of the vocal cords