Path 3-1

  1. How is iron lost from the body?
    sloughed mucosal cells, desquamation, menstration, other
  2. Function Erythropoeitin
    triggers myeloid stem cells to produce RBCs
  3. Counts immature RBCs released from bone marrow, gives the measure of bone marrow activity
    reticulocyte count
  4. 5 measures from the complete blood count
    • Cell Counts (RBC, WBC, PTL)
    • Hemoglobin content
    • Red blood cell volume (hemocrit)
    • MCV- RBC size
    • Reticulocyte count
  5. Male and female Hemoglobin ranges
    • male 13-18 g/dl
    • female 12-16 g/dl
  6. Factors that can affect hemoglobin measurements
    age, sex, race

    • elevation from:
    • hemocentration, hyperlipidemia, fat droplets, hypergammaglobinemia, cryoglobinemia, leukocytosis

    decrease from: hemodilution
  7. Volume of red blood cells to volume of whole blood

    elevated by: spherocytosis, hypochromic anemia, RBC fragmentation syndromes, improper speciman mixing
  8. increase in bodys RBC mass
    polycythemia- relatively rare, chronic hypoxia, living at high altitude
  9. decrease in bodies RBC mass
  10. Blood loss, impaired RBC production, accelerated RBC destruction
    results in anemia
  11. Feature fatigue, headaches, paleness, menstral irregularity, dyspnea, tachycardia, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea
    anemia clinical manifestations
  12. Blood Loss
    Anemia of Chronic Disease
    Anemia of Renal Disease
    Bone Marrow Disease
    Hemolytic anemia
    Normocytic anemias
  13. Anemia of chronic disease
    Iron deficiency anemia
    Thalassemia syndromes
    Sideroblastic anemia
    lead poisoning
    erythropoitic porphyris
    Microcytic anemias
  14. Marked reticulocytosis related to hemolysis or blood loss
    Liver disease
    Bone Marrow Disease
    Folate/Vit B12 deficiency
    Macrocytic anemia
  15. Elderly patient presents:
    skin changes, mucosal atrophy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, decreased renal function, headache, impaired vision, malaise, dyspnea on exertion, angina pectoralis
    Chronic blood loss anemia

    blood loss is greater than regenerative capacity
  16. Microcytic, hypochromic anemia
    chronic hypoxia, deficient cell growth
    chronic blood loss and slow insidious growth

    patient presents pale, esp eyes, palms of hands
    nails look spoonlike
    Iron deficiency anemia
  17. Pregnant women, fast growing children, malabsorption, chronic blood loss like from menstration
    iron deficiency anemia
  18. Dietary iron sources
    red meat = heme

    iron fort cereal, beans, potatoes, broccoli = non heme
  19. normochromic normocytic anemia, increased iron stores, decreased serum iron and transferrin, high serum ferritin, does not respond to iron therapy
    anemia of chronic diseases
  20. Anemia etiology: Chronic infectious disease, chronic inflammatory disease, malignancy
    anemia of chronic disease
  21. Anemia pathogenesis: impairs iron utilization, relative bone marrow failure, shortened RBC life span
    anemia of chronic disease
  22. Anemia etiology: disorders of DNA synthesis, rapid erythrocytosis with marked reticulocytosis, lipid disorders with abnormal RBC membrane
    Macrocytic anemia, MCV>100fL
  23. causes of macrocytic anemia in the US(7)
    alcoholism( most common), liver disease, bleeding or hemolysis, hypothyroidism, Vit B12/folate deficiency(Metaloblastic anemia), chemotherapeutic drugs, myelodysplastic syndrome
  24. This anemia symptoms: psychosis, optic nerve atrophy, weakness, mild jaundice, purpura(bleeding), paresthesia, glossitis, melanin pigmentation, pallor, GI problems , mild malabsorption, weight loss
    macrocytic anemia
Card Set
Path 3-1
Red blood cell diseases