sanitation semicolon.txt

  1. Challenges to food safety
    1. training costs time and money 2. employees may come from diverse backgrounds and speak multiple languages 3. employees may have different levels of education 4. pathogens are being found on once considered safe food 5. food might be received from suppliers that are not practicing food safety 6. number of customers at high risk is increasing7. training new staff leaves less time for food safety training
  2. foodborne illness
    a disease carried or transmitted to people by food
  3. foodborne illness outbreak
    an incident in which 2 or more people get the same illness after eating the same food
  4. majority of cases of foodborne illnesses
    are not reported and do not occur at restaurants or foodservice establishments
  5. costs of a foodborne illness to an establishment
    1. loss of customers and sales 2. loss of reputation 3. negative media exposure 4. lowered employee morale 5. lawsuits and legal fees 6. employee absenteeism 7. increased insurance premiums 8. staff retraining
  6. plaintiff must prove
    1. food was unfit to be served 2. food caused the plaintiff harm
  7. warranty of sale
    the rules for how the food must be handled
  8. reasonable care defense
    can be used if the establisment has a food safety management plan in place
  9. at risk populations
    1. infants and preschool age children (<5) 2. pregnant women 3. elderly (>65) 4. compromised immune systems
  10. pregnant women are at risk because
    immune systems are compromised during pregnancy
  11. elderly people are at risk because
    1. immune systems are weaker 2. stomach acid production decreases 3. sense of taste and smell decline 4. may not get sufficient nutrients5. may have chronic conditions further lowering immune system
  12. three types of contamination hazards
    1. biological 2. physical 3. chemical
  13. CDC top 5 ways food becomes unsafe
    1. purchasing from unsafe sources 2. failing to cook adequately 3. holding at incorrect temperatures 4. using contaminated equipment 5. poor personal hygiene
  14. time-temperature abuse
    food has been time-temperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at temperatures that favor growth of foodborne microorganisms.
  15. ways time temperature abuse can happen
    1. not held or stored at required temperatures 2. not cooked or reheated to temperatures that kill microorganisms 3. not cooled properly
  16. cross-contamination happens when
    1. microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another
  17. ways cross-contamination can happen
    1. contaminated ingredients are added to food that receives no further cooking 2. foodhandler touches contaminated food then ready-to-eat food 3. contaminated food touches, drips onto rte food 4. RTE food touches contaminated surfaces 5. contaminated cleaning towels touch food-contact surfaces
  18. Poor personal hygiene can
    1. offend customers 2. contaminate food or food-contact surfaces 3. cause illness
  19. purchase food from
    approved suppliers
  20. examples of approved suppliers
    1. one that has been inspected and meets all applicable local, state, and federal laws 2. shellfish should be purchased from someone on the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List 3. mushrooms picked in the wild should be inspected by experts 4. homemade items should not be purchased
  21. keys to food safety
    1. control time and temperature throughout food floow 2. practice good personal hygiene 3. prevent cross-contamination 4. purchase from approved, reputable suppliers 5. clean and sanitize properly
  22. pathogen
    a microorganism that can cause illness
  23. four types of pathogens
    viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi
  24. what do pathogens need to grow
    FATTOM: food acidity temperature time oxygenmoisture
  25. acidity
    pH is a measurement of acidity.
  26. pathogens typically do not grow in alkaline food or highly acidic food. They grow best in food that has little to no acid: 4.6 to 7.5 pH
  27. temperature
    pathogens grow well in the danger zone: 41 to 135 (140 WA state)
  28. time
    four hours in the danger zone allows pathogens enough time to grow to dangerous levels
  29. Oxygen
    some require oxygen to grow, others grow when oxygen is absent. Pathogens that grow without oxygen can occur in cooked rice, untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures, and temperature abused baked potatoes
  30. moisture
    pathogens require moisture to grow: water activity. Measured on a scale of 0.0 to 1.0 with water at 1.0. A water actvity of .85 or higher is ideal for pathogens.
  31. Foods most likely to be unsafe
    1. milk and dairy 2. eggs 3. meat 4. poultry 5. fish 6. shellfish and crustaceans 7. baked potatoes 8. heat-treated plant food 9. tofu or other soy 10. synthetic incredients (TVP) 11. sprouts and sprout seeds 12. slicked melons and cut tomatoes13. untreated garlic and oil mixtures
  32. TCS food
    food that needs time and temperature control for safety
  33. virus characteristics
    1. can survive refrigeration and freezer temperatures 2. cannot grow in food, but can grow in people 3. can contaminate both food and water 4. can be transmitted person to person, person to food, and person to food-contact surfaces
  34. preventing virus contamination
    1. wash hands 2. keep foodhandlers with vomiting or diarrhea or jaundice from working 3. minimize bare-hand contact with RTE food
  35. RTE
    ready - to - eat food
  36. major viruses implicated in foodborne illnesses
    1. Hepatitis A 2. Norovirus gastroenteritis
  37. bacteria characteristics
    1. most are controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone 2. most will grow rapidly if FATTOM conditions are right 3. some change into spores to protect themselves 4. some product toxins as they grow and die. Illness can result from eating the toxins. Cooking may not destroy these toxins.
  38. growth stages of bacteria
    1. Lag (adjustment) 2. Log (rapid growth) 3. Stationary (rate of growth and death are equal) 4. Death (rate of death higher than growth)
  39. major bacteria implicated in foodborne illnesses
    1. bacillus cereus 2. listeria monocytogenes 3. shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (O157:H7) 4. Clostridium perfringens 5. Clostridium botulinum 6. Salmonella spp. 7. Shigella spp. 8. Staphylococcus aureus9. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  40. parasite characteristics
    1. cannot grow in food, must be in the meat of another animal to survive 2. can use many animals as hosts 3. can be found in the feces of animals and people 4. can contaminate both food and water
  41. major parasites implicated in foodborne illnesses
    1. anisakis simplex (fish) 2. cryptosporidium parvum (contaminated water) 3. Giardia duodenalis (contaminated water)
  42. fungi
    can cause illness, but mostly spoil food
  43. examples are mold and yeast
  44. mold characteristics
    1. spoil food and sometimes cause illness 2. some produce toxins, such as aflatoxins 3. grow under almost any condition 4. cooler/freezer temps slow growth but do not kill
  45. yeast characteristics
    1. can spoil food quickly 2. grow well in acidic food with low water activity
  46. biological toxins
    may be produced by pathogens
  47. seafood toxins
    cannot be smelled or tasted
  48. systemic seafood toxins
    created by pufferfish, moray eels, and freshwater minnows
  49. major seafood toxins
    1. Scromboid poisoning caused by Histamine 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning caused by Ciguatoxin 3. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused by Saxitoxin 4. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), caused by 5. Amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP) caused by Domoic acid
  50. mushroom toxins
    usually caused when toxic mushrooms are mistaken for edible ones
  51. not destroyed by cooking or freezing
  52. do not use mushrooms unless they have been purchased from approved, reputable suppliers
  53. plant toxins
    usually caused by purchasing from an unapproved source
  54. toxic plants: fool's parsley, wild turnips,
  55. honey from bees harvesting toxic plants
  56. undercooked kidney beans
  57. toxic metals
    lead: in pewter
  58. copper: sometimes in cookware
  59. zinc: galvanized items
  60. improperly installed carbonated beverage dispensers (copper lines)
  61. do not cook acidic foods in these
    use only food-grade utensils and equipment
  62. chemical storage guideliens
    1. away from food, utensils, and equipment 2. separate storage area, in original container 3. follow manufacturer's directions 4. be careful using if food is simultaneously being prepared 5. if new container, label with common name 6. only use lubricants approved for food equipment
  63. physical contaminants
    objects in food
  64. metal, stables, glass, blades, fingernails, hair, bandages, dirt, bones, jewelry, fruit pits
  65. food allergy
    body's negative reaction to a particular food protein
  66. symptoms of a food allergy
    itching around mouth, face, or scalp tightening in the throat wheezing or shortness of breath hives swelling of face, eyes, hands, feet abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea loss of consciousness death
  67. preventing allergic reactions: staff
    staff should be knowlegeable, and able to describe dishes, identify ingredients, and suggest simple dishes
  68. preventing allergic reactions: kitchen
    prevent cross contact 1. do not use the same oil for frying multiple types of food 2. prevent cross-contact via surface contactn wash, rinse, sanitize wash hands, change gloves assign specific equipment for allergenic foods diseases not transmitted through food
  69. hand washing practices
    1. running water as hot as is comfortable (100 degrees or more) 2. apply soap 3. scrub vigorously for 20 seconds 4. rinse hands and arms thoroughly under running water 5. dry with a single-use towel or air-dryer
  70. when to wash hands
    before they start work
  71. hand-maintenance
    fingernails short and clean no false fingernails no nail polish bandage wounds and keep bandages from leaking when to change gloves
  72. proper work attire
    wear a clean hat or other hair restraint wear clean clothing daily remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas remove jewelry
  73. flow of food
    path through a foodservice establishment from purchasing and receiving through storage, preparation, cooking, holding, cooling, reheating and serving
  74. physical barriers for preventing cross-contamination
    assign specific equipment for food product types
  75. clean and sanitize after each task
  76. procedural barriers for preventing cross-contamination
    if using same physical space, prepare raw meat, seafood, and poultry, and RTE food at different times
  77. purchase ingredients that require minimal preparation
  78. microorganisms grow fastest
    between 70 and 125 degrees farenheit
  79. preventing time and temperature abuse
    1. determine best way to monitor
  80. 2. have the right kind of thermometers
  81. 3. regularly record temps and times
  82. 4. incorporate time/temp controls into standard operating procedures
  83. 5. develop corrective actions
  84. bimetallic stemmed thermometers
    measures temp through a metal probe with sensor at the end
  85. very usable
  86. must have adjustable calibration nut
  87. easy-to-read
  88. dimple to mark sensing area
  89. accuracy within
  90. +- 2 degrees F
  91. thermocouples and thermistors
    measure through a metal probe or sensing area and display on a digital readout
  92. types of probes
    immersion (liquids)
  93. surface (flat cooking equipment like griddles)
  94. penetration (internal temp of food)
  95. air (inside refrigerators or ovens)
  96. using infrared thermometers
    -may help prevent cross-contamination
  97. hold as close as possible to product w/o touching
  98. remove barriers between product and thermometer
  99. follow manufacturer's directions
  100. time-temperature indicator
    self-adhesive tag
  101. two methods to calibrate thermometers
    boiling method and ice-point method
  102. boiling method of calibration
    1. bring clean tap water to a boil in a deep pan
  103. 2. put thermometer or probe into the water so that the sensor area is completely submerged
  104. 3. hold calibration nut securely and rotate head of thermometer until it reads 212 or the appropriate boiling point temperature for your altitiude
  105. ice-point method of calibration
    1. fill a large container with crushed ice
  106. 2. submerge thermometer until sensor is completely submerged
  107. 3. hold calibration nut securely and rotate head of thermometer utnil it reads 32 degrees F
  108. general thermometer guidelines
    1. keep them and their storage cases clean
  109. 2. calibrate regularly ( daily)
  110. 3. never use glass thermometers
  111. 4. measure internal temperature by inserting thermometer into the thickest part
  112. 5. wait for the reading to steady before recording it
  113. factors in choosing a supplier
    1. approved and reputable
  114. 2. develop a relationship
  115. 3. arrange deliveries so that they arrive one at a time and during off-peak ours
  116. inspection procedures
    1. train employees to inspect deliveries properly
  117. 2. plan ahead for shipments
  118. 3. plan a backup menu
  119. 4. inspect and store each delivery before accepting another
  120. 5. have the right information available
  121. 6. inspect deliveries immediately
  122. 7. correct mistakes immediately
  123. 8. put products away as quickly as possible
  124. 9. keep receiving area clean and well-lit to discourage pests
  125. rejecting shipments
    1. set the rejected product aside
  126. 2. tell delivery person why you are rejecting
  127. 3. get a signed adjustment
  128. 4. log the incident on invoice or receiving document
  129. checking temp of meat, poultry, or fish deliveries
    insert thermometer into thickest part
  130. checking temp of ROP packaging and bulk food
    insert probe in between two packages
  131. checking temperature of non-ROP packaged food
    open package and insert probe into product
  132. checking temperature of live, molluscan shellfish
    air temperature reading in the middle of the case, inbetween the shellfish
  133. checking temperature of eggs
    check air temperature of delivery truck and check temp recorder for extreme fluctuations during transport
  134. criteria for acceptable fish
    bright red gills, bright shiny skin
  135. firm flesh that springs back
  136. mild ocean or seawater smell
  137. bright, clear, and full eyes
  138. product should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice
  139. criteria for rejecting fish
    dull grey gills, dull dry skin
  140. soft flesh that leaves an imprint when touched
  141. strong fishy or ammonia smell
  142. cloudy, red-rimmed, or sunken eyes
  143. tumors, abcesses, or cysts on skin
  144. sushi-grade fish must be
    frozen to one of the below prior to shipment:
  145. -4 F or lower for 7 days
  146. -31 F or lower until solid and then at -31F for 15 hours
  147. -31 F or lower until solid then at -4 or lower for 24 hours
  148. sushi-grade fish records
    supplier will provide records showing freezing records. Must keep on file for 90 days after fish is served
  149. shellfish shipping
    must be purchased from suppliers listed in the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List
  150. shucked must be in non-returnable containers
  151. containers smaller than one half gallon must have a best if used by or sell by date
    containers bigger than one half gallon must have the date the shellfish were shucked
  152. live shellfish must be received on ice or at an air temp of 45 F or lower. shucked product must be received at 41 F or lower
  153. must have shellstock identification tags
  154. food safety management system
    a group of procedures and practices intended to prevent foodborne illness
  155. -active managerial control
  156. -HACCP
  157. active managerial control
    focuses on controlling the five most common risk factors for foodborne illness as per the CDC
  158. The FDA food code identifies five ways to control these risks
  159. -demonstration of knowledge
  160. -staff health control
  161. -controlling hands as a means of transmission
  162. -time and temperature parameters
  163. -consumer advisory
  164. active managerial control approach
    1. consider the five risk factors in your establishment
  165. 2. create policies and procedures that address these issues
  166. 3. regularly monitor the policies and procedures
  167. 4. verify that the policies and procedures are actually controlling the risk factors
  168. HACCP
    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
  169. Seven HACCP principles
    1. conduct a hazard analysis
  170. 2. determine critical control points
  171. 3. establish critical limits
  172. 4. establish monitoring procedures
  173. 5. identify corrective actions
  174. 6. verify that it works
  175. 7. establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
  176. when a HACCP plan is required
    1. applying for a variance
  177. 2. smoking food
  178. 3. using food additives for preservation so that TTC is no longer needed
  179. 4. curing food
  180. 5. custom-processing animals
  181. 6. packaging using ROP methods
  182. 7. treating and packaging juice on site for later sale
  183. 8. sprouting seeds or beans
  184. 9. offering live molluscan shellfish from a display tank
  185. crisis plan focuses on
  186. response
  187. recovery
  188. how to prepare for a crisis
    1. assemble an emergency contact list
  189. 2. develop a crisis communication plan
  190. 3. assemble a crisis kit
  191. preparing for foodborne illness
    create a form to collect data if a foodborne illness is reported
  192. 1. when and what the customer ate
  193. 2. when the customer fell ill
  194. 3. what the symptoms were, how long they lasted
  195. 4. when and where the customer sought medical attention, what the diagnosis was, and the treatment received
  196. 5. what other food was eaten by the customer
  197. crisis response
    work with the media
  198. communicate information directly to your key audiences
  199. fix the problem and communicate to media and key audiences what you ahve done
  200. recovering from a foodborne illness outbreak
    work with regulatory authority to resolve issues
  201. clean and sanitize everything
  202. throw out all suspect food
  203. investigate to find the cause
  204. establish new procedures or revise existing ones
  205. develop a plan to reassure customers
  206. power outage
    have a generator
  207. prepare a menu with items that do not need to be cooked
  208. develop a refrigerator policy
  209. make a list of electrical equipment which could be harmed when power is turned back on
  210. have emergency info for utility companies, garbage, ice, etc.
  211. if refrigeration stops
    write down time
  212. check and record food temps periodically
  213. keep doors closed
  214. keep TCS food in ice
  215. throw out food if in danger zone too long
  216. if ventilation hood stops working
    stop all cooking
  217. if hot holding equipment stops working
    write down time
  218. throw out all food held below 135 for more than 4 hours
  219. if water service is interrupted
    prepare a menu which requires little water
  220. keep supply of single-use items
  221. keep supply of bottled water
  222. have a supplier who can supply ice in an emergecy
  223. have emergency contact info for the local regulatory authority, plumber, and water department
  224. develop procedures that minimize water use
  225. develop emergency handwashing procedure
  226. if hands cannot be washed
    implement emergency handwashing procedure
  227. do not touch RTE food with hands
  228. if toilets do not flush
    find other facilities
  229. if not available, stop operations
  230. if drinking water is not available or is contaminated
    use bottled water
  231. get water from an approved source
  232. keep water in a covered, sanitized container during transport
  233. throw out food made with potentially contaminated water
  234. use bottled water for cooking
  235. turn off automatic beverage machines
  236. if ice cannot be made
    stop making it
  237. throw out existing ice
  238. buy ice
  239. if equipment/utensils cannot be sanitized
    use single-use items
  240. use bottled water
  241. when water is restored
    clean and sanitize items with water-line connections
  242. flush water lines
  243. work with your local authority
  244. if a fire occurs
    stop operations if food can no longer be safely prepared
  245. block off affected areas
  246. if a waterline leaks, food/utensils not affected
    keep people away from wet floor
  247. repair the leak
  248. block off the area
  249. if flood damages food, utensils, etc.
    stop all operations
  250. if flood is a result of a sewage backup
    close affected area immediately
  251. correct the problem
  252. clean the area thoroughly
  253. layout of a kitchen
    work flow should minimize the amount of time food spends in the danger zone
  254. good layout will minimize the chance of contamination
  255. ensure that equipment is accessible
  256. allow for easy cleaning
  257. qualities of a handwashing station
    hot and cold running water
  258. soap
  259. means to dry hands
  260. waste container
  261. signage indicating employees are required to wash hands before returning to work
  262. NSF
    NSF International
  263. evaluated, tested, and certified as meeting international commercial food equipment standards
  264. UL
    Underwriters Laboratories
  265. provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF standards
  266. also lists products complying with their own published environemental and publich health (EPH) standards
  267. potable water
    water which is safe for cleaning, cooking, and drinking
  268. cross connection
    a physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other wastewater sources can enter a potable water supply
  269. backflow
    the unwanted reverse flow of contaminants through a cross connection into the potable water system
  270. vacuum breaker
    one way to prevent backflow
  271. air gap
    an air space used to separate a water supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source
  272. properly designed sinks have two:
  273. faucet to flood rim
  274. sink drain pipe to floor drain
  275. should be twice the diameter of the water supply outlet
  276. types of lightbulbs to use
  277. protective cage
  278. minimium lighting: food preparation areas
    50 foot-candles
  279. minimum lighting: storage and dining rooms
    10 foot-candles
  280. minimum lighting: most areas
    20 foot-candles
  281. garbage containers must be
    leak proof, waterproof, pest proof, easy to clean, and durable
  282. floor-mounted equipment must be X off the floor?
  283. or sealed to masonry base
  284. tabletop equipment should be mounted with how much clearance between equipment and tabletop?
    4" or sealed to the table
  285. cleaning
    the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface
  286. sanitizing
    the process of reducing the number of microorganisms on that surface to safe levels
  287. steps to cleaning and sanitizing
  288. rinse
  289. sanitize
  290. air-dry
  291. factors in cleaning difficulty
    type of soil
  292. condition of soil
  293. water hardness
  294. water temperature
  295. surface being cleaned
  296. agitation or pressure
  297. length of treatment
  298. 4 categories of cleaners
  299. degreasers
  300. delimers
  301. abrasive cleaners
  302. detergents
    contain surfacants that reduce surface tension between the soil and the surface it is on
  303. degreasers
    dissolve grease
  304. delimers
    used on mineral deposits and other soils that other cleaners cannot remove
  305. abrasive
    scouring agents
  306. heat sanitizing
    water must be 171 degrees F and items must be immersed for 30 seconds
  307. chemical sanitizing
    regulated by state and federal EPAs
  308. can be done by immersion or rinsing, swabbing, spraying the object
  309. factors which influence the effectiveness of sanitizers
    contact time
  310. temperature
  311. water hardness
  312. pH
  313. concentration
  314. wash temperature
    110 F
  315. Rinse temperature
    110 F
  316. sanitizer temperature
    70 to 115 F
  317. soak time for sanitizer
    depends on sanitizing ingredient and water temp.
  318. quats - 75 F and 30 seconds 200ppm
  319. iodine - 75 F and 30 seconds 12.5 - 25 ppm
  320. bleach - 7 seconds at 50 ppm and temp 75 - 100
  321. 10 seconds at 25 ppm and 120 degrees
  322. 10 seconds at 100 ppm and 55 degrees
  323. MSDS
    Material Safety Data Sheet
  324. identifying cleaning needs
    identify all surfaces, tools, equipment, etc that need cleaning
  325. look at how cleaning is done now
  326. estimate time and skills needed to for each task
  327. master cleaning schedule
    what should be cleaned
  328. who should clean it
  329. when it should be cleaned
  330. how it should be cleaned
  331. infestation
    pests in the facility in large numbers
  332. integrated pest management program
  333. uses prevention measures to keep pests from entering the establishment and control measures to eliminate any pests that do get in
  334. pest control officer
  335. licensed
  336. 3 basic rules of an IPM
    deny access to pests
  337. deny pests food, water, and a hiding or nesting place
  338. work with a licensed IPO to eliminate pests that do enter
  339. how to deny access
  340. keep exterior openings closed
  341. install door sweeps and self-closing devices
  342. use air curtains
  343. seal openings around pipes
  344. cover floor drains with hinged grates
  345. seal all cracks in floors and walls
  346. seal spaces where equipment is fitted to the floor
  347. how to deny food and shelter
    dispose of garbage quickly
  348. store recyclables in clean pestproof containers, as far away from your building as allowed
  349. store all food and supplies as quickly as possible
  350. clean thoroughly
  351. cover outdoor garbage
  352. identify pests
    record time, date, location, and specifics of where you spot signs of pests
Card Set
sanitation semicolon.txt
sanitation semicolon