Midterm III Review

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  1. Change in Religions
  2. What are the 2 ways in which new traits can enter a culture?
    Invention and diffusion
  3. Define invention.
    The trait emerges from within a culture.
  4. Define diffusion.
    The trait comes from another culture.
  5. How does diffusion often occur? (2 ways)
    • Trade
    • Missionary activity.
  6. Define acculturation.
    One culture becomes significantly like another culture.
  7. Why does acculturation occur?
    Because of a power imbalance.
  8. Revitalization Movements
  9. Define revitalization movement.
    A conscious, organized attempt to create a better society.
  10. A ________ movement is a revitalization movement that predicts an imminent end to the world as is known.
  11. What is a millenarian movement where the members expect to receive material goods known as?
    Cargo cult
  12. What are three things that lead to cargo cults?
    • 1) Christianization
    • 2) Colonization
    • 3) Capitalist plantations
  13. Types of Revitalization
  14. Define nativistic.
    A revitalization that looks towards a better past.
  15. A __________ is a revitalization that looks towards a better future
  16. Define millenarian.
    A revitalization that believes in an imminent end to the world.
  17. A ________ is a revitalization that looks to an individual to bring change.
  18. True/False: A mystic is a revitalization that is focused on mysticism. If false, why?
  19. Define mysticism.
    A sense of communion with the supernatural.
  20. Define prophetic.
    One that receives messages from God.
  21. A symbolic dialogue between two religions is known as ______.
  22. Define syncretism.
    Traits from two or more cultures come together to make a new trait.
  23. steps of a revitalization
  24. List the steps of a revitalization (6 steps).
    • 1) steady state
    • 2) individual stress
    • 3) cultural distortion
    • 4) period of revitalization
    • 5) steady state
    • 6) conversion
  25. Define steady state.
    The normal order of society.
  26. What is individual stress?
    When the norms of society do not work for some individuals.
  27. Define cultural distortion.
    The norms of society do not work for a significant proportion of the population.
  28. What is a code?
    A message from the leader of the revitalization.
  29. What is meant by communication?
    Message must be communicated/published.
  30. What is meant by transformation?
    Code transforms to match the real world.
  31. conversion
  32. True/False: Mazeway resynthesis is for the leader of the revitalization, while hysterical conversion is for everyone else. If false, why?
  33. Define mazeway resynthesis.
    A complete reordering of how one understands the world.
  34. Define hysterical conversion.
    Everyone else has an emotional need to convert.
  35. Video Notes
  36. This video took place in ____, the capital of _____.
    Accra; Ghana
  37. What purpose does witchcraft serve here?
    Social control
  38. Bewitched here means...?
    tampering with one's soul
  39. What does the position of the fowl determine?
    Whether or not someone is a witch.
  40. The ______ takes them where they shouldn't be
  41. What are some reasons people are accused of witchcraft?
    They looked at something they weren't supposed to look at or have a big mouth.
  42. A witch is someone you don't _____.
  43. If a woman can't have children, where does she get sent?
    The fort
  44. What happened involving a ball of fire and a child?
    A ball of fire came down and killed a child.
  45. What happened to a man who shot at the fire?
    He accidentally killed his mother.
  46. True/False: This was the first man convicted of witchcraft. If false, why?
  47. What would happen if these camps were shut down by the government?
    The women would go back to their villages and be killed.
  48. True/False: A belief in witchcraft has been a part of Roman Catholicism since it's beginning. If false, why?
    False. A belief in witchcraft at first opposed the Roman Catholic church, but this changed in the 1500s.
  49. What does a witch craze usually correspond with?
    A great shift of wealth from lower to upper classes.
  50. How does the citizens economic system work?
    They work the fields and give the chiefs rent.
  51. Native American Revitalizations
  52. Native American Revitalizations
  53. What did Handsome Lake advocate for? (3 things)
    • No alcohol
    • No abortion
    • Pro acculturation
  54. This revitalization movements went through an _______ change to _______.
    external; society
  55. In this movement, salvation comes from what?
    Good works
  56. What is the purpose of the ghost dance?
    To bring ancestors back to life.
  57. This an ______ change through ______ ______ (salvation).
    external; spirit possession
  58. The Indian Shaker Church invokes an _______ change.
  59. When do know that you have changed?
    Once spirit possession has occurred.
  60. In peyotism, an ______ change occurs through the use of peyote.
  61. What is peyote?
    A hallucinogen.
  62. How does salvation occur?
    Through mysticism.
  63. Rastafarianism
  64. What do rastafarians follow?
    The bible.
  65. Who is Haille Selassie?
    An ethiopian emperor who was considered god.
  66. What was his name before becoming emperor?
    Ras Tafari.
  67. What does Ras Tafari want?
    To bring people out of Babylon.
  68. Define babylon.
    Everywhere outside of Africa for a black person.
  69. In the bible, what is known to be the healing of the nations, according to Rastafarians?
  70. What is ganja?
  71. Ganja acts as a _______.
  72. Cognitive Dissonance
  73. Haitian Vodou
  74. What does haitian vodou syncretize between? (2 religions)
    African religions/Catholicism
  75. True/False: When it comes to spirit possessions, most spirits are either possessed or married to one (or more) spirits. If false, why?
  76. What is meant by service to the spirits?
    Dedicating yourself to the god you are married or associated with.
  77. A religion that is well integrated into society is known as a ______.
  78. A religion that is not well integrated into society is known as a ______.
  79. What is the popular definition of cult?
    A sect that is seen as particularly controlling.
  80. Define pseudoscience.
    Claims to science that skip or avoid steps of the scientific method.
  81. Define cognitive dissonance.
    An uncomfortable feeling caused by holding competing truths in one's mind.
  82. Who is Carlos Castaneda?
    An anthropologist who made up his field work.
  83. Religious Trends
  84. The division of the world into two is known as ________.
  85. Define fundamentalism.
    Anti-modern movements in religion.
  86. True/False: The idea that all religions are not expressions of the same idea is known as continuum. If false, why?
    False. Continuum is the idea that all religions are expressions of the same idea.
  87. Define bricolage.
    Taking parts from different religions in one's daily life.
  88. Define conversion.
    The fact of changing one's religion or beliefs or the action of persuading someone else to change theirs.
  89. Religious ______ is having different religions existing in the same society.
  90. Define religious nationalism.
    Identification of a government with a specific religion.
  91. Conflict between religions is known as religious ______.
  92. Define secularization.
    Areas of life that were formerly associated with religion that no longer are.
  93. Cultural Institutions
  94. The Major Cultural Institutions
  95. Define subsistence.
    Tools and techniques of survival.
  96. Define economics.
    How goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed.
  97. A societally recognized union between two people is known as a ______.
  98. Kinship is a system of ______ and ______ based on categories of status through _____ and ______.
    rights; obligations; blood; marriage
  99. Politics is the way in which power is _______.
  100. Define socialization.
    Becoming part of society by learning the norms & rules of society.
  101. A system of communication based on arbitrary rules is known as _______.
  102. Art is _____ expression judged by _____ principles.
    creative; aesthetic
  103. Define religion.
    People's relationship with the supernatural.
  104. Subsistence
  105. How do hunter-gatherers subsist?
    Through systematic collection of wild plants & animals.
  106. What type of religion are hunter-gatherer societies associated with?
  107. Social structure?
  108. How do horticultural societies subsist?
    Through simple gardening.
  109. What methods do they use?
    Slash and burn, in which they slash down tress, burn them, & plant.
  110. What religion type are horticultural societies associated with?
  111. Social structure?
  112. How do intensive agricultural societies subsist?
    Through complex farming.
  113. True/False: Intensive agriculture lead to a more stable good supply and easier work. If false, why?
    False. The work was harder.
  114. What religion type are intensive agricultural societies associated with?
  115. Social structure?
  116. How do industrialist societies subsist?
    Through farming and relying on mechanisms.
  117. True/False: With a higher level of stratification comes more punishment from the supernatural. If false, why?
  118. Integration of Culture and Religion
  119. Value of Virginity
  120. For the correlation, virginity is valued where women depend on men for ______.
  121. What stands as evidence of virginity?
  122. What is the problem with this?
    Women sometimes have lack hymen, or have flexible hymens.
  123. What is the morrocan custom at weddings?
    To check the bridal sheets for blood.
  124. In Confucian China, what would parents do with their daughter's bridal sheets?
    Hang them for the village to see.
  125. Where is virginity most highly valued?
    In intensive agricultural societies.
  126. Political Leaders
  127. In hunter-gatherer societies, who acts as political leader?
    Anyone who is smarter than the others.
  128. True/False: In horticultural societies, political leaders are still informal. If false, why?
  129. In intensive agriculture, a political leader is a model for what?
    Being in charge of people.
  130. Are the political leaders in intensive agricultural societies formal or informal?
  131. Define lineage.
    A kinship group where the members can trace the links of descent to a known common ancestor.
  132. The Beng, are all born into the same ______.
  133. True/False: Although the Beng believe that most things are male, they believe the earth is female. If false, why?
    False. They believe that most things are female, and that the earth is male.
  134. What is considered a sexual sin for the Beng?
    Having sex in the fields.
  135. What would the consequences of heaving sex in the fields be?
    Lineage members must do rituals to appease the Earth's spirit.
  136. Religion and Gender
  137. Define gender.
    Cultural expectations of behavior based on sex.
  138. Genital Cutting
  139. Define circumcision.
    Cutting of the genitals (penis)
  140. True/False: Circumcision is a cultural marker. If false, why?
  141. Define subincision.
    A knife is inserted in the underside of the penis through the urethra and sliced forward.
  142. What is subincision associated with?
  143. Removal of the clitoris is known as a _________.
  144. Third Gender
  145. Define third gender.
    Culture allows one or both sexes to choose a set of gender characteristics.
  146. The third gender amongst North American Indians is known as ____-____.
  147. True/False: Two-spirits are something we only find in egalitarian societies. If false, why?
  148. What is the third gender in India?
  149. True/False: India, unlike North American Indian societies, is highly stratified. If false, why?
  150. Why do the Hijra remove their genitals?
    The Hijra dedicate their lives to a goddess by giving up their potency.
  151. native theories of conception
  152. What is meant by combination?
    The blood from the menses combines with the semen from the father to make a baby.
  153. Define spirit impregnation.
    A spirit enters the womb and becomes a fetus.
  154. What is meant by spirit children?
    An actual, physical miniature child enters the womb and becomes a fetus.
  155. What is this miniature child?
    A spirit.
  156. Marriage
  157. Define levirate.
    A man is expected to marry his dead brother's wife, and in turn, a woman is expected to marry her dead husband's brother.
  158. Rituals to remove one from connection to dead relatives is known as _____-______ customs.
  159. What is posthumous marriage in China?
    Marriage after the bride and groom are both dead.
  160. In France?
    A woman can get married to a dead man.
  161. What is posthumous marriage linked to in China?
    Ancestor worship.
  162. stratification
  163. Define stratification.
    A society in which groups have differing access to resources, power, & prestige.
  164. A social class into which one is born and must remain for one's life is known as a _____.
  165. A ______ class is one in which mobility is not possible between the classes.
  166. What two things are regulated to keep people from changing classes?
    • 1) Marriage
    • 2) Occupation
  167. Define ritual pollution.
    Lowering of status through contact with something of a lower status.
  168. Ritual separation is about _____ separation.
  169. What is meant by purity?
    Every item should be a whole and complete example of it's kind and there should be no mixing of kinds.
  170. A mixing of categories is known as _______.
  171. "Ambiguity is ______".
  172. What is dirt?
    Matter out of place.
  173. Define taboo words.
    Words that are not supposed to be said.
  174. Define incest.
    Sex with close members.
  175. True/False: Incest is universally prohibited. If false, why?
  176. Define sodomy.
    Any unnatural sexual act.
  177. Religion and Warfare
  178. War
  179. The Tsembaga have war every _____ years as a way regulating _____, and is known as the _______.
    17; pigs; ecological
  180. The Tsembaga plant ______, the peace tree.
  181. What is the purpose of the Aztec Flowery Wars?
    To obtain prisoners for sacrifice.
  182. How were the prisoners sacrificed?
    The heart if the flower offered to the gods.
  183. What was the purpose of the Incan Conquest?
    To find resources to support the mummies.
Card Set
Midterm III Review
From Change in Religions to Revitalization Movements
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