- A venerable 3rd party still in existence that has persistently campaigned
- for abolition of alcohol but has also introduced many important reform
- ideas into American politics.
- 3rd party of the 1870s and 80s that garnered temporary support by
- advocating currency inflation to expand the economy and assist debtors.
Major 3r party of the 1890s formed on the basis of the Farmers’ Alliance and other reform organizations.
- State laws enacted in the Midwest in the 1870s that regulated rates charged
- by railroads, grain elevator operators, and other middlemen.
Elitist and conservative reformers who favored sound money and limited government and opposed tariffs and the spoils system
National American Woman Suffrage Association
Organization formed in 1890 that coordinated the ultimately successful campaign to achieve women’s right to vote.
Pendelton Civil Service Act
- 1883 law that reformed the spoils system by prohibiting government workers
- from making political contributions and creating the Civil Service
- Commission to oversee their appointment on the basis of merit rather
- than politics.
Interstate Commerce Act
- 1887 law that expanded federal power over business by prohibiting poling and
- discriminatory rates by railroads and establishing the first federal
- regulatory agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Interstate Commerce Commission
The first federal regulation agency, established in 1887 to oversee railroad practices
Sherman Antitrust Act
- First federal antitrust measure passed in 1890, sought to promote economic
- competition by prohibiting business combinations in restraint of trade
- or commerce.
Misleading slogan that referred to a conservative policy of restricting the money supply and adhering to the gold standard.
Philosophy that the government should expand the money supply by purchasing and coining all the silver offered to it.
- A broad mass movement in the rural South and West during the late 19th
- century encompassing several orgainzations and demanding economic and
- political reforms.
- 1892 platform of the Populist Party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding
- economic and political reforms to aid distressed farmers and workers.
- A protest march of unemployed workers, led by Populist businessman
- Jacob Coxey, demanding inflation and a public works program during the
- depression of the 1890s.
-Tariff Protection-Sound Money-Overseas expansion
(1900-1917) Era where the US had important movements that challenged traditional relationships and attitudes.
Social Gospel Movement
- Movement created by reform Protestant ministers seeking to introduce religious
- ethics into industrial relations and appealing to churches to meet
- their social responsibilities.
- Journalism exposing economic, social, and political evils, so named by Theodore
- Roosevelt for its “raking the muck” of American society.
Popular name for the members of the Industrial Workers of the World
Religious conservatives who believe the literal accuracy and divine inspiration of the Bible.
Ban on production, sale, and consumption of liquor, achieved temporarily though state law and the 18th Amendment
Constitutional revision, adopted in 1919, that prohibited the production and sale of alcohol in the US
- African American group organized in 1905 to promote racial integration, civil
- and political rights, and equal access to economic opportunity.
Constitutional revision that in 1920 established women citizens’ right to vote.
Secret voting and the use of official ballots rather than party tickets
1913- Constitutional Amendment that authorized a federal income tax.
- Roosevelt 1912 program calling for a strong national government to foster,
- regulate, and protect business, industry, workers, and consumers.
- Woodrow Wilson’s 1912 program for limited government intervention in the
- economy to restore competition by curtailing the restrictive influences
- of trusts and protective tariffs, thereby providing opportunities for
- individual achievement.
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act
1913- Reform law that lowered tariff rates and levied the first regular federal income tax
Federal Reserve Act
- 1913 Law that revised banking and currency by extending limited government
- regulation through the creation of the Federal Reserve System.
Federal Trade Commission
Government agency established in 1914 to provide regulatory oversight of business activity
- Policy and practice of exploiting nations and peoples for the benefit of an
- imperial power either directly though military occupation and colonial
- rule or indirectly though economic domination of resources and markets,
Ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahnan, stressing US naval, economic, and territorial expansion. Supported by Northeast Republicans.
Pan American Union
- International organization originally est. as the Commercial Bureau of American
- Republics by Sec of State James Blaine; first Pan-American Conference
- in 1889 to promote cooperation among nations of the Western Hemisphere
- though commercial and diplomatic negotiation
- A deliberately sensational journalism of scandal and exposure designed to
- attract an urban mass audience and increase advertising revenues.
Congressional resolution adopted in 1898 renouncing any American intention to annex Cuba.
Spheres of Influence
Regions dominated and controlled by an outside power
American policy of seeking equal trade and investment opportunities in foreign nations or regions.
Diplomatic agreement in 1907 between Japan and the US curtailing but not abolishing Japanese immigration.
- -Japan deny passports to those workers wanting to come to the US-Segregation in San Francisco Schools, Asians and whites
- -Cause- Anti-American riots-Roosevelt blocked Russian indemnity, hurt Japan pay for war
- Stipulation the US had inserted into the Cuban constitution in 1901 restricting
- Cuban autonomy (self gov’t) and authorizing US intervention and naval
- President Roosevelt policy asserting US authority to intervene in the affairs of
- Latin American nations, an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine
The US policy of using private investment in other nations to promote US diplomatic goals and business interests
Germany and its WWI allies in Austria, Turkey, and Bulgaria
In WWI, Britain, France, Russia, and other nations fighting against the Central Powers but not including the United States.
Declaration of London
Statement drafted by an international conference in 1909 to clarify international law and specify the rights of neutral nations.
- Germany’s pledge during WWI not to ink merchant ships without warning, on the
- condition that Britain also observe recognized rules of international
Military buildup in preparation for possible US participation in WWI
Right of a people or a nation to decide its own political allegiance or form of government without external influence
War Industries Board
Federal agency that reorganized industry for maximum efficiency and productivity during WWI
- certificates sold by the US government to finance the US WWI effort.
- These were sold to the public, celebrities tried to get people to buy
- them. “Anyone who refuses to buy them is a friend of Germany.”
-made $23 billion
Committee on Public Information
- Gov’t agency during WWI that sought to shape public opinion in support of the
- war effort though newspapers, pamphlets, speeches, films and other
-Sought to manipulate, not inform the public.
Law whose vague prohibition against obstructing the nation’s war effort was used to crush dissent and criticism during WWI.
-heavy fines for obstructing war effort
Sedition Act of 1918
Broad law restricting criticism of America’s involvement in WWI or its government, flag, military, taxes, or officials.
Selective Service Act 1917
Established the military draft for WWI
Part of the Communist movement in Russia that established the Soviet government after the 1917 Russian Revolution.
-Made provisional gov’t collapse-V.I. Lenin was Bolshevik ruler, armistice with Germany- Later became Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Treaty of Versailles
- Treaty that ended WWI and created the League of Nations. Germany signed, terms
- were more severe than Wilson wanted. Germany accepted sole
- responsibility for starting war, and had to give reparations to the
- Allies and give up land. It also had to limit its army and navy and
- destroy military bases and promise not to manufacture or purchase
League of Nations
- International organization created by Versailles Treaty after WWI to ensure world stability.
- Member nations had to guarantee each other’s independence.-US was never a member
-peaked at 58 members-1919- 1946
Group of US senators adamantly opposed to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles after WWI
Group of US senators opposing approval of the Treaty of Versailles without significant amendments
- Post WWI public hysteria over Bolshevik influence in the US directed vs.
- labor activism, radical dissenters, and some ethnic groups.
-Palmer and Hover led movement-Mad at Bolshevism-Anonymously mailed bombs on May Day proved that Bolshevik was a threat
McKinley Tariff Act 1890
Closed US markets to HI sugar products-threatened HI economy-made planters want annexation to the US
Led US Asiatic squadron to Manila Bay and destroyed Spanish-US have presence in the Philippians-McKinley sent more troops to the Philippines.
Campaign against Treaty of Paris-Repudiation of US moral and political traditions-against expansion, racists
industry, such as steel making or auto manufacturing, that is controlled by a few large companies
- factory or business employing workers whether or not they are union members: in
- practice, such as a business usually refuses to hire union members and
- follows antiunion policies
employment agreements binding workers to not join a union
paternalistic system of labor relations emphasizing management responsibility for employee well-being
League of Women voters
league formed in 1920 advocating for women’s rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws
Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act
first fed social welfare law, passed in 1921, providing federal funds for infant and maternity care
- movement of AA from the rural South to the urban North, spurred
- especially by new job opportunities during WWI and the 1920s
new AA cultural awareness that flourished in literature, art, and music- 1920s
Universal Negro Improvement Association
-led by Garvey-rejected goal of integration-Promoted black nationalism
-organized numerous black enterprises
920s popular music- symbol of many changes taking place in mass culture
Emergency Quota Act 1921
reduced immigration by 2/3 and established quotas for nationalities on the basis of their numbers in the US in 1910
-Restrictions- demanded more stringent action vs. Catholics and Jews
National Origins Act of 1924
- Law sharply restricting immigration on the basis of immigrants national
- origins and discriminating against southern and eastern Euro and Asians
US citizens born of immigration Japanese parents
- 1920 law defining the liquor forbidden under the 18th Amendment and giving
- enforcement responsibilities to the Prohibition Bureau of the Dept of
- Public Treasury
Firms with direct investments, branches, factories, and offices in a number of countries
1928 international treaty that denounced aggression and war but lacked provisions for enforcement
- nations worst economic crisis, extending through the 1930s producing
- unprecedented bank failures, unemployment, and industrial and agricutural
Shantytowns, named after Hoover, in which unemployment and homeless people lived in makeshift shacks, tents, and boxes
President’s Organization for Unemployment Relief
created by Hoover, raise private funds for voluntary relief agencies.-charities should help poor, not gov’t
Reconstruction Finance Corp
RFC lent federal funds to banks, insurance co, and RR so that their recovery could trickle down
- Unemployment veterans of WWI gathering in Washington in 1932 demanding payment of service bonuses not due until 1945
- -10k were living on shantytown outside DC- MacArthur made them leave
- Speeches broadcast nationally over the radio in which FDR explained complex
- issues and programs in plain language as though his listeners were
- gathered around the fireside with him
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp- FDIC
Government agency that guarantees bank deposits, protecting depositors and banks.-guarantee deposits up to $2,500
Securities and Exchange Commission
SEC-created to regulate the stock market and regulated trading practices in stocks and bonds
separated investment and commercial banking to curtail risky speculation
reformed sale of stocks to prevent insider abuses
National Recovery Admin- NRA-
-halt slide in prices, wages, and employment
-tended to help business, often at an expense of labor-Declared unconstitutional in 1935
Social Security Act-
-provided unemployment compensation, old-age pension, and aid for dependent mothers and children and the blind-law excluded more than a ¼ of all workers and did not include health insurance
-funded by a regressive payroll tax
Banking Act of 1935-
- increased authority of the Federal Reserve Board over the nation’s currency and
- credit system and decreased power of the private bankers whose
- irresponsible behavior had contributed to the depression and the appeal
- of Fr Coughlin
Emergency Relief Appropriation Act
authorized $5 billion for emergency public employment
Works Progress Admin
Hopkins- set up work relief programs to assist the unemployed and boost the economy
- -9 million people had
- jobs- 1/5 of labor force- built schools, post offices, hospitals,
- parks, bridges (roads + sewer systems to cover the earth 30 times)
Congress of Industrial Organizations
An alliance of industrial unions that spurred the 1930s org drive among the mass-production industries
Tennessee Valley Authority
- Fed regional planning agency estb to promote conservation, produce
- electric power, and encourage economic development in 7 southern states
Gov’t subscribing to a philosophy of dictatorship that merges the interests of the state, armed forces, and big business
political and economic confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US (1946-1989)
International Monetary Fund - IMF
international organization in 1945 to assist nations maintaining stable currencies- revive international trade around US
- revive post-war international trade, it drew on resources of member nations to
- make economic development loans to governments for new dams or
- agricultural modernization- revive international trade around US
1947 - US should assist other nations facing external pressure orinternational revolution- US help those resist subversion/aggression
Marshall Plan - European Recovery Plan
US would help in rebuilding of post WW II Europe- 813.5 billion - 4 years- Europe spent $ on US goods
resist Soviet expansion through diplomacy and military action if necessary
300 day Soviet blockade of land access to US/Britian/French occupation zones in Berlin (1948-49)
National Security Act - (1947)
creates Central Intelligence Agency- coordinates gathering and evaluation of military and economic info on other nations
National Security Council
- formal policy making body for national defense and foreign relations created
- in 1947 and consisting of the president, secretary of defense, sec. of
- state, and others appointed by the president
US pact w/ Australia and New Zealand
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
organization of ten European countries, Canada, US - mutual defense pact
Atomic Energy Commission - AEC
AEC- Congress gave control to AEC - researched atomic power and tested weapons
National Security Council Paper - 68 NSC68
policy that committed US to a military approach in the CW
- world divided between slavery and freedom- US use as much force as needed to stop Communism
Pacific War - North Korea helped by Soviets equipment and Chinese training - attacked South Korea- US thought it was a play to suck in US army
- Truman -> US ground troops Japan- endorsed by UN
House Un-American Committee - HUAC
ferret out pro-Fascists later investigated
un-American propaganda that attacked constitutional government
Senate Internal Security Subcommittee
anti-Communist attitudes and actions associated with Sen Joe McCarthy in the early 50’s, smear tactics and innuendo
International Security Act and Immigration and Nationality Act
National Defense Education Act
expand college and post grad education
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Federal agency created to manage US space flights and exploration
Massive Rebellion - Military Doctrine
US promised to respond to any attack on itself or allies with massive force, including nukes
JFK domestic and foreign policy initiative designed to reinvigorate a sense of national purpose and energy
Bay of Pigs
Cuban site of unsuccessful landing by 1400 anti-Castro Cuban refugees in April 1961
erected by East Germany that isolated W. Berlin from surrounding areas in Communist-controlled E. Berlin and E. Germany
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization - SEATO
mutual defense alliance signed in 1954 by US, Britain, France, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, Australia, and NZ
Army Special Forces Group - Green Berets
Kennedy military innovation
Communist rebels in S. Vietnam who fought the pro-US government estb in S. Vietnam
Alliance for Progress
economic aid to Latin America during the Kennedy administration
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
- request to Congress from President Johnson in response to N. Vietnam
- torpedo boat attacks where he sought authorization for “all necessary
- measures” to protect US forces - stop further aggression
Federal Highway Act of 1956
-trucks have military hardware, easy evacuation if SU attacks
War on Poverty
- Set of programs by LBJ in 1963-1966 designed to beak the cycle of poverty
- by providing funds for job training, community development, nutrition,
- and supplementary education.
-first phase of civil right movement
Students for a Democratic Society
Leading student organization of the new left
Free Speech Movement
Student movement at UCal Berkeley formed in 1964 to protest limitations on political activities on campus
Model Cities Program
- Effort to target federal funds to upgrade public services and economic
- opportunity in specifically defined urban neighborhoods between 1966
- and 1974
- Various alternatives to mainstream values and behaviors that became popular in
- the 60s, including experimentation with drugs, communal living, a
- return to the land, Asian religions, and experimental art.
-alienation from US society
- June 27, 1969, patrons fought back when police raided the gay Stonewall In
- in NY, the name refers to the event and to the increase in militancy by
- gay Americans that it symbolizes
-catalyst for homosexuals to assert themselves as a political force-SF and NY were centers of gay life
Real economic and political gains would come with self-help, self-determination, and organizing for direct political influence
Nation of Islam
Religious movement among black US that emphasizes self-sufficiency, self-help, and separation from whites
-help black businesses
- Political and Social movement with black Americans, founded in Oakland, CA in
- 1966 and emphasized black economic and political power
Nixon policy to shift responsibilities of gov’t programs form the federal level to the states-General Revenue Sharing was centerpiece- fed funs to local gov’t with no use limitations
-18 billion to states 36 billion to local gov’t
OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
- nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America that gained substantial
- power over the world economy in the mid to late 70s by controlling the
- production and price of OIL
-created when Arab nations had a n embargo, oil shortages
Environmental Protection Agency- EPA-
Fed agency in 1970 to oversee environmental monitoring and cleanup programs
-Nixon also had National Environmental Policy Act-1970 also had first earth day
Scandal involving attempts to cover up illegal actions taken by administration official and leading to the resignation of Nixon
Classified Defense Dept documents on the history of US involvement in Vietnam, prepared in 1968 and leaked to the press in 1971
- Agreement in 1975 among NATIO and Warsaw Pact members that recognized Euro
- national boundaries as set after WWII that included guarantees of human
- Process of economic change involving the disappearance of outmoded industries
- and the transfer of factories to new low-wage locations, with
- devastating effects in the NE and Mid-West in 70s and 80s
Camp David Agreement
Agreement to reduce points of conflict b/t Israel and Egypt, hammered out in 1977 with help of US President Jimmy Carter