US History

  1. Prohibition Party
    • A venerable 3rd party still in existence that has persistently campaigned
    • for abolition of alcohol but has also introduced many important reform
    • ideas into American politics.
  2. Greenback Party
    • 3rd party of the 1870s and 80s that garnered temporary support by
    • advocating currency inflation to expand the economy and assist debtors.
  3. Populist Party
    Major 3r party of the 1890s formed on the basis of the Farmers’ Alliance and other reform organizations.
  4. Granger Laws
    • State laws enacted in the Midwest in the 1870s that regulated rates charged
    • by railroads, grain elevator operators, and other middlemen.
  5. Mugwumps
    Elitist and conservative reformers who favored sound money and limited government and opposed tariffs and the spoils system
  6. National American Woman Suffrage Association
    Organization formed in 1890 that coordinated the ultimately successful campaign to achieve women’s right to vote.
  7. Pendelton Civil Service Act
    • 1883 law that reformed the spoils system by prohibiting government workers
    • from making political contributions and creating the Civil Service
    • Commission to oversee their appointment on the basis of merit rather
    • than politics.
  8. Interstate Commerce Act
    • 1887 law that expanded federal power over business by prohibiting poling and
    • discriminatory rates by railroads and establishing the first federal
    • regulatory agency, the Interstate Commerce Commission.
  9. Interstate Commerce Commission
    The first federal regulation agency, established in 1887 to oversee railroad practices
  10. Sherman Antitrust Act
    • First federal antitrust measure passed in 1890, sought to promote economic
    • competition by prohibiting business combinations in restraint of trade
    • or commerce.
  11. Sound Money
    Misleading slogan that referred to a conservative policy of restricting the money supply and adhering to the gold standard.
  12. Free Silver
    Philosophy that the government should expand the money supply by purchasing and coining all the silver offered to it.
  13. Farmers’ Alliance
    • A broad mass movement in the rural South and West during the late 19th
    • century encompassing several orgainzations and demanding economic and
    • political reforms.
  14. Omaha Platform
    • 1892 platform of the Populist Party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding
    • economic and political reforms to aid distressed farmers and workers.
  15. Coxey’s Army
    • A protest march of unemployed workers, led by Populist businessman
    • Jacob Coxey, demanding inflation and a public works program during the
    • depression of the 1890s.
  16. McKinley’s Program
    -Tariff Protection-Sound Money-Overseas expansion
  17. Progressive Era
    (1900-1917) Era where the US had important movements that challenged traditional relationships and attitudes.
  18. Social Gospel Movement
    • Movement created by reform Protestant ministers seeking to introduce religious
    • ethics into industrial relations and appealing to churches to meet
    • their social responsibilities.
  19. Muckraking
    • Journalism exposing economic, social, and political evils, so named by Theodore
    • Roosevelt for its “raking the muck” of American society.
  20. Wobblies
    Popular name for the members of the Industrial Workers of the World
  21. Fundamentalists
    Religious conservatives who believe the literal accuracy and divine inspiration of the Bible.
  22. Prohibition
    Ban on production, sale, and consumption of liquor, achieved temporarily though state law and the 18th Amendment
  23. 18th Amendment
    Constitutional revision, adopted in 1919, that prohibited the production and sale of alcohol in the US
  24. Niagara Movement
    • African American group organized in 1905 to promote racial integration, civil
    • and political rights, and equal access to economic opportunity.
  25. 19th Amendment
    Constitutional revision that in 1920 established women citizens’ right to vote.
  26. Australian ballot
    Secret voting and the use of official ballots rather than party tickets
  27. Sixteenth Amendment
    1913- Constitutional Amendment that authorized a federal income tax.
  28. New Nationalism
    • Roosevelt 1912 program calling for a strong national government to foster,
    • regulate, and protect business, industry, workers, and consumers.
  29. New Freedom
    • Woodrow Wilson’s 1912 program for limited government intervention in the
    • economy to restore competition by curtailing the restrictive influences
    • of trusts and protective tariffs, thereby providing opportunities for
    • individual achievement.
  30. Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act
    1913- Reform law that lowered tariff rates and levied the first regular federal income tax
  31. Federal Reserve Act
    • 1913 Law that revised banking and currency by extending limited government
    • regulation through the creation of the Federal Reserve System.
  32. Federal Trade Commission
    Government agency established in 1914 to provide regulatory oversight of business activity
  33. Imperialism
    • Policy and practice of exploiting nations and peoples for the benefit of an
    • imperial power either directly though military occupation and colonial
    • rule or indirectly though economic domination of resources and markets,
  34. Mahanism
    Ideas of Alfred Thayer Mahnan, stressing US naval, economic, and territorial expansion. Supported by Northeast Republicans.
  35. Pan American Union
    • International organization originally est. as the Commercial Bureau of American
    • Republics by Sec of State James Blaine; first Pan-American Conference
    • in 1889 to promote cooperation among nations of the Western Hemisphere
    • though commercial and diplomatic negotiation
  36. Yellow Press
    • A deliberately sensational journalism of scandal and exposure designed to
    • attract an urban mass audience and increase advertising revenues.
  37. Teller Amendment
    Congressional resolution adopted in 1898 renouncing any American intention to annex Cuba.
  38. Spheres of Influence
    Regions dominated and controlled by an outside power
  39. Open Door
    American policy of seeking equal trade and investment opportunities in foreign nations or regions.
  40. Gentlemen’s Agreement
    Diplomatic agreement in 1907 between Japan and the US curtailing but not abolishing Japanese immigration.

    • -Japan deny passports to those workers wanting to come to the US-Segregation in San Francisco Schools, Asians and whites
    • -Cause- Anti-American riots-Roosevelt blocked Russian indemnity, hurt Japan pay for war
  41. Platt Amendment
    • Stipulation the US had inserted into the Cuban constitution in 1901 restricting
    • Cuban autonomy (self gov’t) and authorizing US intervention and naval
    • bases.
  42. Roosevelt Corollary
    • President Roosevelt policy asserting US authority to intervene in the affairs of
    • Latin American nations, an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine
  43. Dollar Diplomacy
    The US policy of using private investment in other nations to promote US diplomatic goals and business interests
  44. Central Powers
    Germany and its WWI allies in Austria, Turkey, and Bulgaria
  45. Allies
    In WWI, Britain, France, Russia, and other nations fighting against the Central Powers but not including the United States.
  46. Declaration of London
    Statement drafted by an international conference in 1909 to clarify international law and specify the rights of neutral nations.
  47. Sussex Pledge
    • Germany’s pledge during WWI not to ink merchant ships without warning, on the
    • condition that Britain also observe recognized rules of international
    • laws
  48. Preparedness
    Military buildup in preparation for possible US participation in WWI
  49. Self-determination
    Right of a people or a nation to decide its own political allegiance or form of government without external influence
  50. War Industries Board
    Federal agency that reorganized industry for maximum efficiency and productivity during WWI
  51. Liberty Bonds
    • Interest-bearing
    • certificates sold by the US government to finance the US WWI effort.
    • These were sold to the public, celebrities tried to get people to buy
    • them. “Anyone who refuses to buy them is a friend of Germany.”

    -made $23 billion
  52. Committee on Public Information
    • Gov’t agency during WWI that sought to shape public opinion in support of the
    • war effort though newspapers, pamphlets, speeches, films and other
    • media.

    -Sought to manipulate, not inform the public.
  53. Espionage Act
    Law whose vague prohibition against obstructing the nation’s war effort was used to crush dissent and criticism during WWI.

    -heavy fines for obstructing war effort
  54. Sedition Act of 1918
    Broad law restricting criticism of America’s involvement in WWI or its government, flag, military, taxes, or officials.
  55. Selective Service Act 1917
    Established the military draft for WWI
  56. Bolshevik
    Part of the Communist movement in Russia that established the Soviet government after the 1917 Russian Revolution.

    -Made provisional gov’t collapse-V.I. Lenin was Bolshevik ruler, armistice with Germany- Later became Communist Party of the Soviet Union
  57. Treaty of Versailles
    • Treaty that ended WWI and created the League of Nations. Germany signed, terms
    • were more severe than Wilson wanted. Germany accepted sole
    • responsibility for starting war, and had to give reparations to the
    • Allies and give up land. It also had to limit its army and navy and
    • destroy military bases and promise not to manufacture or purchase
    • armaments.
  58. League of Nations
    • International organization created by Versailles Treaty after WWI to ensure world stability.
    • Member nations had to guarantee each other’s independence.-US was never a member

    -peaked at 58 members-1919- 1946
  59. Irreconcilables
    Group of US senators adamantly opposed to ratification of the Treaty of Versailles after WWI
  60. Reservationists
    Group of US senators opposing approval of the Treaty of Versailles without significant amendments
  61. Red Scarce
    • Post WWI public hysteria over Bolshevik influence in the US directed vs.
    • labor activism, radical dissenters, and some ethnic groups.

    -Palmer and Hover led movement-Mad at Bolshevism-Anonymously mailed bombs on May Day proved that Bolshevik was a threat
  62. McKinley Tariff Act 1890
    Closed US markets to HI sugar products-threatened HI economy-made planters want annexation to the US
  63. George Dewey
    Led US Asiatic squadron to Manila Bay and destroyed Spanish-US have presence in the Philippians-McKinley sent more troops to the Philippines.
  64. Anti-Imperialist League
    Campaign against Treaty of Paris-Repudiation of US moral and political traditions-against expansion, racists
  65. Oligopoly
    industry, such as steel making or auto manufacturing, that is controlled by a few large companies
  66. Open-shop
    • factory or business employing workers whether or not they are union members: in
    • practice, such as a business usually refuses to hire union members and
    • follows antiunion policies
  67. Yellow-dog Contacts
    employment agreements binding workers to not join a union
  68. Welfare Capitalism
    paternalistic system of labor relations emphasizing management responsibility for employee well-being
  69. League of Women voters
    league formed in 1920 advocating for women’s rights, among them the right for women to serve on juries and equal pay laws
  70. Sheppard-Towner Maternity and Infancy Act
    first fed social welfare law, passed in 1921, providing federal funds for infant and maternity care
  71. Great Migration
    • mass
    • movement of AA from the rural South to the urban North, spurred
    • especially by new job opportunities during WWI and the 1920s
  72. Harlem Renaissance
    new AA cultural awareness that flourished in literature, art, and music- 1920s
  73. Universal Negro Improvement Association
    -led by Garvey-rejected goal of integration-Promoted black nationalism

    -organized numerous black enterprises
  74. Jazz Age
    920s popular music- symbol of many changes taking place in mass culture
  75. Emergency Quota Act 1921
    reduced immigration by 2/3 and established quotas for nationalities on the basis of their numbers in the US in 1910

    -Restrictions- demanded more stringent action vs. Catholics and Jews
  76. National Origins Act of 1924
    • Law sharply restricting immigration on the basis of immigrants national
    • origins and discriminating against southern and eastern Euro and Asians
  77. Nisei
    US citizens born of immigration Japanese parents
  78. Volstead Act
    • 1920 law defining the liquor forbidden under the 18th Amendment and giving
    • enforcement responsibilities to the Prohibition Bureau of the Dept of
    • Public Treasury
  79. Multinational Corporations
    Firms with direct investments, branches, factories, and offices in a number of countries
  80. Kellogg-Briand Pact
    1928 international treaty that denounced aggression and war but lacked provisions for enforcement
  81. Great Depression
    • nations worst economic crisis, extending through the 1930s producing
    • unprecedented bank failures, unemployment, and industrial and agricutural
    • collapse
  82. Hoovervilles
    Shantytowns, named after Hoover, in which unemployment and homeless people lived in makeshift shacks, tents, and boxes
  83. President’s Organization for Unemployment Relief
    created by Hoover, raise private funds for voluntary relief agencies.-charities should help poor, not gov’t
  84. Reconstruction Finance Corp
    RFC lent federal funds to banks, insurance co, and RR so that their recovery could trickle down
  85. Bonus Army
    • Unemployment veterans of WWI gathering in Washington in 1932 demanding payment of service bonuses not due until 1945
    • -10k were living on shantytown outside DC- MacArthur made them leave
  86. Fireside Chats
    • Speeches broadcast nationally over the radio in which FDR explained complex
    • issues and programs in plain language as though his listeners were
    • gathered around the fireside with him
  87. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp- FDIC
    Government agency that guarantees bank deposits, protecting depositors and banks.-guarantee deposits up to $2,500
  88. Securities and Exchange Commission
    SEC-created to regulate the stock market and regulated trading practices in stocks and bonds
  89. Glass-Steagall Act
    separated investment and commercial banking to curtail risky speculation
  90. Securities Act
    reformed sale of stocks to prevent insider abuses
  91. National Recovery Admin- NRA-
    -halt slide in prices, wages, and employment

    -tended to help business, often at an expense of labor-Declared unconstitutional in 1935
  92. Social Security Act-
    -provided unemployment compensation, old-age pension, and aid for dependent mothers and children and the blind-law excluded more than a ¼ of all workers and did not include health insurance

    -funded by a regressive payroll tax
  93. Banking Act of 1935-
    • increased authority of the Federal Reserve Board over the nation’s currency and
    • credit system and decreased power of the private bankers whose
    • irresponsible behavior had contributed to the depression and the appeal
    • of Fr Coughlin
  94. Emergency Relief Appropriation Act
    authorized $5 billion for emergency public employment
  95. Works Progress Admin
    Hopkins- set up work relief programs to assist the unemployed and boost the economy

    • -9 million people had
    • jobs- 1/5 of labor force- built schools, post offices, hospitals,
    • parks, bridges (roads + sewer systems to cover the earth 30 times)
  96. Congress of Industrial Organizations
    An alliance of industrial unions that spurred the 1930s org drive among the mass-production industries
  97. Tennessee Valley Authority
    • TVA-
    • Fed regional planning agency estb to promote conservation, produce
    • electric power, and encourage economic development in 7 southern states
  98. Fascist Government
    Gov’t subscribing to a philosophy of dictatorship that merges the interests of the state, armed forces, and big business
  99. Cold War-
    political and economic confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US (1946-1989)
  100. International Monetary Fund - IMF
    international organization in 1945 to assist nations maintaining stable currencies- revive international trade around US
  101. World Bank
    • revive post-war international trade, it drew on resources of member nations to
    • make economic development loans to governments for new dams or
    • agricultural modernization- revive international trade around US
  102. Truman Doctrine
    1947 - US should assist other nations facing external pressure orinternational revolution- US help those resist subversion/aggression
  103. Marshall Plan - European Recovery Plan
    US would help in rebuilding of post WW II Europe- 813.5 billion - 4 years- Europe spent $ on US goods
  104. Containment
    resist Soviet expansion through diplomacy and military action if necessary
  105. Berlin Blockade
    300 day Soviet blockade of land access to US/Britian/French occupation zones in Berlin (1948-49)
  106. National Security Act - (1947)
    creates Central Intelligence Agency- coordinates gathering and evaluation of military and economic info on other nations
  107. National Security Council
    • formal policy making body for national defense and foreign relations created
    • in 1947 and consisting of the president, secretary of defense, sec. of
    • state, and others appointed by the president
  108. ANZUS Pact
    US pact w/ Australia and New Zealand
  109. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    organization of ten European countries, Canada, US - mutual defense pact
  110. Atomic Energy Commission - AEC
    AEC- Congress gave control to AEC - researched atomic power and tested weapons
  111. National Security Council Paper - 68 NSC68
    policy that committed US to a military approach in the CW

    - world divided between slavery and freedom- US use as much force as needed to stop Communism
  112. Korean War
    Pacific War - North Korea helped by Soviets equipment and Chinese training - attacked South Korea- US thought it was a play to suck in US army

    - Truman -> US ground troops Japan- endorsed by UN
  113. House Un-American Committee - HUAC
    ferret out pro-Fascists later investigated

    un-American propaganda that attacked constitutional government
  114. Senate Internal Security Subcommittee
    joined HUAC
  115. McCarthyism
    anti-Communist attitudes and actions associated with Sen Joe McCarthy in the early 50’s, smear tactics and innuendo
  116. International Security Act and Immigration and Nationality Act
    political repression
  117. National Defense Education Act
    expand college and post grad education
  118. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
    Federal agency created to manage US space flights and exploration
  119. Massive Rebellion - Military Doctrine
    US promised to respond to any attack on itself or allies with massive force, including nukes
  120. New Frontier
    JFK domestic and foreign policy initiative designed to reinvigorate a sense of national purpose and energy
  121. Bay of Pigs
    Cuban site of unsuccessful landing by 1400 anti-Castro Cuban refugees in April 1961
  122. Berlin Wall
    erected by East Germany that isolated W. Berlin from surrounding areas in Communist-controlled E. Berlin and E. Germany
  123. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization - SEATO
    mutual defense alliance signed in 1954 by US, Britain, France, Thailand, Pakistan, Philippines, Australia, and NZ
  124. Army Special Forces Group - Green Berets
    Kennedy military innovation
  125. Viet Cong
    Communist rebels in S. Vietnam who fought the pro-US government estb in S. Vietnam
  126. Alliance for Progress
    economic aid to Latin America during the Kennedy administration
  127. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    • request to Congress from President Johnson in response to N. Vietnam
    • torpedo boat attacks where he sought authorization for “all necessary
    • measures” to protect US forces - stop further aggression
  128. Federal Highway Act of 1956
    -41k miles

    -trucks have military hardware, easy evacuation if SU attacks
  129. War on Poverty
    • Set of programs by LBJ in 1963-1966 designed to beak the cycle of poverty
    • by providing funds for job training, community development, nutrition,
    • and supplementary education.

    -first phase of civil right movement
  130. Students for a Democratic Society
    Leading student organization of the new left
  131. Free Speech Movement
    Student movement at UCal Berkeley formed in 1964 to protest limitations on political activities on campus
  132. Model Cities Program
    • Effort to target federal funds to upgrade public services and economic
    • opportunity in specifically defined urban neighborhoods between 1966
    • and 1974
  133. Counterculture
    • Various alternatives to mainstream values and behaviors that became popular in
    • the 60s, including experimentation with drugs, communal living, a
    • return to the land, Asian religions, and experimental art.

    -alienation from US society
  134. Stonewall Rebellion
    • June 27, 1969, patrons fought back when police raided the gay Stonewall In
    • in NY, the name refers to the event and to the increase in militancy by
    • gay Americans that it symbolizes

    -catalyst for homosexuals to assert themselves as a political force-SF and NY were centers of gay life
  135. Black Power
    Real economic and political gains would come with self-help, self-determination, and organizing for direct political influence
  136. Nation of Islam
    Religious movement among black US that emphasizes self-sufficiency, self-help, and separation from whites

    -help black businesses
  137. Black Panthers
    • Political and Social movement with black Americans, founded in Oakland, CA in
    • 1966 and emphasized black economic and political power
  138. New Federalism
    Nixon policy to shift responsibilities of gov’t programs form the federal level to the states-General Revenue Sharing was centerpiece- fed funs to local gov’t with no use limitations

    -18 billion to states 36 billion to local gov’t
  139. OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    • Oil-producing
    • nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America that gained substantial
    • power over the world economy in the mid to late 70s by controlling the
    • production and price of OIL

    -created when Arab nations had a n embargo, oil shortages
  140. Environmental Protection Agency- EPA-
    Fed agency in 1970 to oversee environmental monitoring and cleanup programs

    -Nixon also had National Environmental Policy Act-1970 also had first earth day
  141. Watergate
    Scandal involving attempts to cover up illegal actions taken by administration official and leading to the resignation of Nixon
  142. Pentagon Papers
    Classified Defense Dept documents on the history of US involvement in Vietnam, prepared in 1968 and leaked to the press in 1971
  143. Helsinki Accords
    • Agreement in 1975 among NATIO and Warsaw Pact members that recognized Euro
    • national boundaries as set after WWII that included guarantees of human
    • rights
  144. Deindustrialization
    • Process of economic change involving the disappearance of outmoded industries
    • and the transfer of factories to new low-wage locations, with
    • devastating effects in the NE and Mid-West in 70s and 80s
  145. Camp David Agreement
    Agreement to reduce points of conflict b/t Israel and Egypt, hammered out in 1977 with help of US President Jimmy Carter
Card Set
US History
Words for the US History Final