A&P Seeley 2.7

  1. What are proteins?
    Polypeptides composed of hundreds of amino acids.
  2. All proteins contain…
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen bound together by covalent bonds.
  3. How do proteins help the body?
    • Regulate bodily processes
    • Transportation system
    • Provide protection
    • Help muscles contact
    • Provide structure and evergy
  4. The basic building blocks for proteins are…
    20 amino acid molecules
  5. Peptide bonds
    The covalent bonds formed between amino acid molecules during protein synthesis.
  6. Dipeptide
    2 amino acids bound together by a peptide bond
  7. Tripeptide
    3 amino acids bound together by peptide bonds
  8. Polypeptide
    Many amino acids bound together by peptide bonds
  9. The primary structure of a protein is determined by…
    The sequence of the amino acids bound by peptide bonds.
  10. How is the function of a protein determined?
    The characteristics of the amino acids determine the 3D shape which determines the function
  11. The secondary structure results from…
    The folding or bending of the polypeptide chain caused by the hydrogen bonds between amino acids
  12. What are the 2 common shapes of a polypeptide chain?
    • Helices (coils)
    • Pleated (folded) sheets
  13. Denaturation
    When the hydrogen bonds that maintain the shape of a protein are broken.
  14. What can cause denaturation?
    Abnormally high temperature or change in the pH of body fluids.
  15. Tertiary structure results from…
    The folding of the helices or pleated sheets
  16. Domain
    The folded sequence of 100-200 amino acids within a protein.
  17. Quaternary structure
    The spatial relationships between protein subunits.
  18. Enzyme
    A protein catalyst that increases the rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds without the enzyme being permanently changed.
  19. Lock-and-key model
    A reaction occurs when the reactants (key) bind to the active site (lock) on the enzyme.
  20. Induced fit model
    The enzyme is able to slightly change shape and better fit the reactants.
  21. Cofactors
    An additional, nonprotein substance required for some enzymes to be functional.
  22. Coenzymes
    Cofactors that are organic molecules
  23. What do enzymes control?
    The rate at which most chemical reactions proceed in living systems.
  24. Nucleic acids
    Large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
  25. Nucleotides
    Basic building blocks in DNA and RNA
  26. Gene
    A sequence of DNA bases that directs the synthesis of proteins or RNA molecules.
  27. ATP
    • Adenosine triphosphate
    • An especially important organic molecule found in al living organisms.
Card Set
A&P Seeley 2.7
Anatomy & Physiology text, Seeley, Ch 2 The Chemical Basis of Life, part 7/7