psych chapter 13

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  1. Social Psychocology
    the study of how people influence others behavior, beliefs, and attitudes
  2. Social comparison theory
    theory that we seek to evaluate out abilities and beliefs by comparing them with those of others
  3. Difference between upward and downward social comparison
    • upward- we compare ourselves with people who seem superior to us in some way. 
    • ex. when a new member of the mends basketball team compares himself with the teams top two superstars

    • downward- we compare ourselves with others who seem inferior to us in some wars.
    • ex. when a basketball player compares himself with his clumsy friends who keep bouncing basketballs off of their feet.
  4. mass hysteria
    outbreak of irrational behavior that is spread by social contagion. 

    episodes of mass hysteria lead to collective delusions, in which many people simultaneously com to be convinced of bizarre things that are false, such as UFO's
  5. Social Facilitation
    enhancement of performance brought about by the presence of others
  6. Attribution
    assigning causes to behavior
  7. fundamental attribution error
    tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences(traits, attitude) on other people's behavior. 

    we attribute too much of people/s behavior to who they are
  8. conformity
    tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure
  9. deindividuation
    the tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities.
  10. groupthink
    emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking
  11. group polarization
    tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members
  12. cult
    group of individuals who exhibit intense and unquestioning devotion to a single cause
  13. inoculation effect
    approach to convincing people to change their minds about something by first introducing reasons why the perspective might be correct and then debunking them
  14. obedience
    adherence to instruction from those of higher authority
  15. Pluralistic ignorance
    error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do
  16. diffusion of responsibility
    reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others
  17. social loafing
    phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups
  18. altruism
    helping others for unselfish reasons
  19. enlightenment effect
    learning about psychological research can change real-world behavior for the better
  20. aggression
    behavior intended to harm others, either verbally or physically
  21. attitude
    belief that includes an emotional component
  22. self-monitoring
    personality trait that assesses the extent to which peoples behavior reflects their true feelings and attitudes.
  23. cognitive dissonance
    unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs
  24. self-perception theory
    theory that we acquire out attitudes by observing our behaviors
  25. impression management theory
    theory that we dont really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with out attitudes
  26. foot-in-the-door technique
    persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one
  27. door-in-the-face technique
    persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request were hoping to have granted
  28. low-ball technique
    persuasive technique in which the seller of a product starts by quoting a low sales price, and then mentions all of the "add-on" costs once the customer has agreed to purchase the product
  29. prejudice
    drawing negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence
  30. stereotype
    a belief, positive or negative, about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group
  31. ultimate attribution error
    assumption that behaviors among individual members of a group are due to their internal dispositions
  32. adaptive conservatism
    evolutionary principle that creates a predisposition toward distrusting anything or anyone unfamiliar or different
  33. in-group bias
    tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group
  34. out-group homogeneity
    tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar
  35. discrimination
    negative behavior toward members of out-group
  36. scapegoat hypothesis
    claim that prejudice arises from a need to blame other groups for our misfortunes
  37. just-world hypthesis
    claim that our attributions and behaviors are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason
  38. explicit prejudice
    unfounded negative belief of which we're aware regarding the characteristics of an out-group
  39. implicit prejudice
    • unfounded negative belief of which were unaware regarding the
    • characteristics of an out-group
  40. jigsaw classroom
    educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project
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psych chapter 13
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