Bio exam

  1. What are inorgainic components?
    • All other compounds weither living or non-living. They include:
    • Water
    • Oxygen
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Nitrogen
    • Minerals
  2. What are orgainic molecules?
    • They contain carbon and hydrogen. The five main types are:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids
    • Vitamins
  3. What is the balenced chemical equation for photosynthesis?
    • carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + water +oxygen
    • 6 CO2 + 12 H2O -> C6 H12 O6 + 6 H2O + 6 O2
  4. Where does photosynthesis occur?
    In chloroplasts
  5. What needs to be greater for a plant to survive?
  6. How does carbon dioxide enter and leave a plant?
    By diffusion though the stomata.
  7. What adaptaions do plants do to suit photosynthesis to their environment?
    • The leaf shape and size can help depending on their environment.
    • eg. small leaves would help prevent water loss in a dryer climate.
  8. What is chemical digestion?
    The breakdown of complex molecules into simple molecules. It is carried out my specilised enzymes.
  9. What are the three different kinds of digestive enzymes?
    • Amylases- which act on carbohydrates
    • Proteases- which act on proteins
    • Lipases- which act on lipids
  10. What is the differnce between the two tpes of chemical digestion, extracellular and intracellular?
    • Extracellular digestion is the release of enzymes, by cells, into for example the small intestine, which then split the food molecules.
    • Intracellular digestion occurs inside a cell, where it engulfs the small pieces of food, so that the are contained in the vacuole, enzymes are then released into the vacuole.
  11. What is physical breakdown?
    Food needs to be in smaller pieces for chemical digestion to occur, animals do this though teeth, gizzards ect. Bile is the physical digestion of fats.
  12. What is the purpose of a stomach in digestion?
    It helps with the storage of food. Not alot of absorption though the stomach apart from proteins, alcohol and certain drugs.
  13. What is the purpose of the small intestine in digestion?
    It has a large surface area for greater absorbtion of nutrients.
  14. What is Mitosis?
    It is the division on the nucleus.
  15. What is glycolysis?
    It is the initial stage of the breaking down of glucose. It is anaerobic meaning it does not require oxygen. For each molecule of glucose, glucolysis produces two ATP.
  16. What is the cell cycle?
    It is the stages of a cells life, they include. interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase are all part of Mitosis(division of the nucleus).
  17. What happens in Interphase (1)?
    The cell grows and develops in preperation for cell division
  18. What occurs in Prophase (2)?
    Chromosomes begin to condense (shorten and thinken) so they become more visible. Can bee seen as two chromatids held together by the centromere.
  19. What occurs at the Metaphase stage (3)?
    The spindle fibers pull the chromosomes into the centre on the cell.
  20. What happens in Anaphase (4)?
    The spindle fibres contract which pulls the chromosomes into single strand chromosomes, pulling them to opisite poles.
  21. What happen in the telophase stage (5)?
    Oppistie to prophase, where a nuclear membrane forms around the two sperate chromosomes at each pole.
  22. What occurs in cytokinesis (6)?
    Where the cytoplasm seperates.
  23. What is a hindgut fermenter?
    It is were fermentation occurs in the caecum (part joining the small and large intestine). It limits the absobtion of there food, possums and rabits get around this by producting two types of faeces and one they eats so it can be re ingested.
  24. What is a foregut fermenter?
    Fermentation occurs before the stomach, in cattle and sheep this part it call the rumen. From the rumen it then can be regurgitated for futher physical digestion.
  25. What is cellular respiration?
    • The complete breakdown of glucose to provide energy in cells.
    • Refers to the second aerobic stage which occurs in the mitochondria and produces 36-38 molucules of ATP per molecule of glucose.
  26. What are amino acids resquired for and how do we get them?
    • Required for protein synthesis
    • Animals can not make all of the amino acids then need to they need to get them from their diet.
  27. What is Osmosis?
    The diffustion of water though a partialyy permeable membrane from i high concentration to a low concentration.
  28. What is diffusion?
    Molecules moving though the solvent though the concentration gradient
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Bio exam
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