1. What is the definition of personality?
    a person's characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling that distinguishes one person from another
  2. What is Psychoanalysis?
    Freud's term for his theory of personality and therapy for treating psychological disorders, focuses on the unconscious.
  3. What are the three levels of consciosuness?
    • Conscious
    • Preconscious
    • Unconscious
  4. What are Freud's concepts for looking at personality?
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  5. What is the Id?
    The unconscious system of the personality which contains life instincts, death instincts, and operates on the pleasure principle
  6. What is the superego?
    The moral component of the personality
  7. What is the Ego?
    The logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality that operates in reality
  8. What are defense mechanisms?
    a means used by the ego to defend against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem
  9. What is repression?
    Most commonly used defense mechanism, removes painful memories and thoughts and keeps them away from consciousness
  10. What are the psychosexual stages of development?
    a series of stages through which the sexual instincts develop.
  11. What is fixation?
    Arrested development at a stage occurring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage
  12. What is the Oedipus complex?
    Conflict where the child is sexually attracted to the opposite- sex parent and may feel hostility toward the same sex parent
  13. Who was Carl Jung?
    He disagreed with Freud on sexual instinct being the main factor in personality and that personality developed in early childhood.
  14. What are Jung's three parts of personality?
    • Ego
    • Personal Unconscious
    • Collective Unconscious
  15. What is the Personal Unconscious?
    area that contains everything accessible to conscious and hold repressed memories
  16. What is the collective unconscious?
    An inaccessible layer of unconscious that contains universal experiences of humankind
  17. What does the collective unconscious explain?
    Similarity of dreams, myths, symbols, and religious beliefs
  18. What is the Anima?
    Inner feminine figure within man's unconscious
  19. What is the Animus?
    Inner masculine figure within woman's unconscious
  20. What is extraversion?
    Tendency to be outgoing, adaptable, and sociable
  21. What is intraversion?
    Tendency to focus inward and non-social
  22. Who was Alfred Adler?
    He emphasized the unity of personality rather than the separate battling components of freud's id, ego, and superego
  23. What is an inferiority complex?
    inferiority feelings so strong that they prevent personal development
  24. What is Individual psychology?
    Stresses the uniqueness of each individual's struggle to achieve superiority
  25. What are Karen Horney's two main themes?
    Neurotic Personality and Feminine Psychology
  26. What is humanistic psychology?
    People are assumed to have a natural tendency toward growth and realization of their fullest potential
  27. Who is Abraham Maslow?
    Thought that motivational factors are at the root of personality
  28. What was maslow's hierarchy of needs?
    • Psychological needs
    • safety Needs
    • Belonging and esteem needs
    • Self actualization
  29. What were Carl Rogers goals of therapy?
    • Enable people to open up to experiences
    • Begin living according to own internal values
  30. What is a trait?
    Personal qualities or characteristic which are stable across situations and is used to describe or explain personality
  31. What is Gordon Allport's theory?
    A person inherits a unique set of raw materials for given traits
  32. What is a cardinal trait?
    A trait that is so pervasive and outstanding that almost every act seems traceable to its influence.
  33. What is a Central Trait?
    Trait that would be mentioned in writing a careful letter of recommendation
  34. What are surface traits?
    an observable quality of a person
  35. What is a source trait?
    Deeper, more general, underlying personality factors
  36. What is Hans Eysenck's Five-Factor Theory?
    • Openness to experience
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neroticism
  37. What is an Individualist Culture?
    Emphasis is placed on individual, rather than on group acheivement
  38. What is a collectivist culture?
    More interdependent, they define themselves as a group through interests
  39. What is a situation-Trait Debate?
    discussion among psychologists about the relative importance of factors within the situation and factors
  40. According to Bandura, What is reciprocal determinism?
    influential, mutual relationship among behavior, cognitive factors, and environment.
  41. According to Bandura, what is self efficacy?
    The perception of ability to perform competently whatever is attempted.
  42. According to Bandura, what is high self efficacy?
    approach situations confidently, set high goals, and persist in efforts because they believe success is likely
  43. According to Bandura, what is low self efficacy?
    expect failure, avoid challenges, give up on tasks
  44. According to Julian Rotter, what is locus of control?
    Explains how people account for what happens in their life.
  45. According to Julian Rotter, what is internal locus of control?
    See themselves in control of behavior and consequences
  46. According to Julian Rotter, what is external locus of control?
    see fate, luck, and chance in control of behavior and consequences
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