Two researchers observe aggressive behaviors displayed by preschool children. One observer records a large number of aggressive acts displayed within a one-hour period while a second observer records relatively few aggressive acts. Based on these results, we might conclude that there is
A. low interrater reliability.
When conducting a search for previous literature using PsychINFO, you
C. All of these
The more ________________ in a test, the greater the variability of scores in the test.
D. measurement error
Louie is attentive to customers when his supervisor is present but inattentive when his supervisor is gone. Louie's behavior is an example of
A researcher designs a study to examine the relationship between gender and time spent talking in a group. The researcher states, "In a balanced mixed gender group, males will talk more than females." This is an example of a
Which section of the research article summarizes the hypothesis, the procedure, results, and discussion usually in 120 words or less?
Categorizing automobiles as American-made or Foreign-made would be an example of a(n) _______________ scale.
A food critic rates restaurants according to the quality of food, service, and atmosphere. She assigns 4 forks for excellent, 3 for good, 2 for fair, and 1 fork for poor. This measure is an example of a(n) _____________ scale.
Kathy has written a section of a research report in which she explains the possible reasons for results in her study and suggestions for practical applications of the research and future research ideas. Kathy has most likely written the ____________ section.
One way to increase the reliability of a measure is to
D. increase the number of items in the measure.
In alternate forms reliability, different versions of the same test are given to _____________ at _____________ in time.
B. the same individuals; two points
You take your temperature with a thermometer three times over a 20-minute period and observe the following measurements: 98, 106, and 89 degrees. You should conclude that the _____________ of the thermometer is ___________.
D. reliability; low
A measure is reliable if it
D. All of these
As Joan becomes familiar with the literature examining the influence of physical attractiveness on judgments of criminal behavior, she notes inconsistencies in the results. She concludes that this area of study needs to be further investigated. This example best represents ___________ as a source of ideas for research.
C. past research
When a measure is not related to other variables that it theoretically should not be related to, this measure is said to have _______________ validity.
When the results of an experiment are consistent with a prediction developed from a theory, we conclude that the theory is
B. supported by the results.
Testing common sense ideas
D. is valuable because such notions often turn out to be incorrect.
Which one of the following statements would be appropriate for the results section of a research report?
A. The average social desirability rating for attractive individuals was 6.4; however, the average rating for unattractive individuals was 3.2.
A researcher has devised an Interpersonal Skills Test that consists of a type of ruler that shows a person's shoe size. This test probably has ____________ and ___________.
A. high reliability; low validity
A(n) __________ is a statement about the expected relationship between variables. A(n) ____________ is a statement about the outcome of a particular experiment.
B. hypothesis; prediction
A major problem with using Internet search engines such as Google as a method of obtaining research information is
D. the credibility of the source and accuracy of the information may be questionable.
When a scale designed to measure honesty actually measures a person's honesty, the scale is said to have
C. construct validity.
A hypothesis is a
C. tentative statement that something may be true.
A difference between an interval scale and a ratio scale is
B. a ratio scale has an absolute zero point; an interval scale does not.
Which of the following best represents use of an interval scale?
A. Assessing students' ratings of their professors performance on a five point scale from "poor" to "excellent"
A teacher writes the results of a test on the board: 7 students received A's, 10 students received B's, 18 students received C's, 4 students received D's, and 1 student received an F. In statistical terms, this is a
C. frequency distribution.
An automobile repair shop reports that half of the automobiles they repair have a resale value below $8000. In this example, the $8000 represents which measure of central tendency?
A researcher finds that out of 400 pet owners surveyed, 250 own only a dog, 125 own only a cat, and 25 own only a bird. Which measure of central tendency is the most appropriate for this data?
Henry finds that for automobile owners, as the price of gasoline increases, the amount of miles they drive in a week decreases. This finding would suggest ____________ relationship.
D. a negative
In a perfect positive relationship between two variables
A. knowing an individual's score on one variable will allow us to predict exactly what his or her score will be on the other variable.
Brewster measures the height and age of four and five year-olds. To his surprise, he finds no correlation between height and age. What is most likely responsible for his results?
A. He has restricted the range of the variables.
Mel finds the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is -.63. However, the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time is +.52. Mel can conclude
C. the relationship between alcohol consumption and reaction time is stronger than the relationship between coffee consumption and reaction time.
In assessing the relationship between variable X and variable Y, the squared value of the correlation coefficient (r2) is sometimes reported. This value represents
B. the percent of variability in Y that can be accounted for by X.
A regression equation is used to
D. predict a score on Y from a known score on X.
When a researcher is interested in predicting some future behavior based on a person's score on some other variable, they should
D. demonstrate that there is a reasonably high correlation between the criterion and predictor variables.
You find that the correlation between two variables is +.63 but that this correlation drops to +.20 when a third variable is partialed out. You should conclude that
C. the third variable was responsible for the original correlation between the variables.
What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics? Descriptive statistics ____________, while inferential statistics ____________.
B. summarize data; determine the probability that results are due to chance
Inferential statistics allow us to arrive at conclusions about the _____________ on the basis of _____________ data.
A. population; sample
The statement that the independent variable had no effect is called the _____________ hypothesis.
In testing differences between means, the _____________ hypothesis would suggest the population means are different.
A researcher assesses the length of prison sentence assigned to a physically attractive or unattractive defendant. The researcher believes that attractive defendants will be assigned shorter prison sentences than unattractive defendants. The research hypothesis would be
D. physically attractive defendants will receive shorter prison sentences than physically unattractive defendants.
A researcher was interested in differences in attitudes about marriage between men and women. She predicted that women would have different attitudes about marriage than men. What would be the null hypothesis?
A. There is no difference between men and women in their attitudes toward marriage.
According to her statistical analysis, an investigator found that significantly more men than women used spanking to discipline their children. Thus, the investigator would
B. reject the null hypothesis.
The null hypothesis is rejected whenever
A. there is a low probability that the obtained results could be due to random error.
Your lab group must choose a significance test to determine if the mean scores of two groups are significantly different. The appropriate test is a(n)
Rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true is called a _____________ error, whereas not rejecting a false null hypothesis is called a _____________ error.
D. Type I; Type II
A consumer analyst asks participants to rate the comfort of the ride for two brands of all-terrain tires: Trail Cushion and Mud Handler. Trail Cushion was rated more comfortable with a mean of 5.5 than Mud Handler with a mean of 4.3. The Type I error would be to conclude that Trail Cushion was
C. more comfortable than Mud Handler when the two tires are identical in comfort.
Sandra has developed a program designed to increase reading comprehension scores in 6thgraders. She randomly selects three students and has them participate in her program. When she compares the mean score from the students who completed her program to three students who did not participate in the program, she finds no significant difference between their mean scores. What is most likely the reason for the non-significant finding?
B. A small sample size
With three independent variables and a single dependent variable, the most appropriate statistical test to analyze the data would be a(n)
C. analysis of variance.
A researcher found that as the amount of violence watched on TV increased, the amount of playground aggressiveness increased. Based on these findings, it can be said with certainty that
D. knowing the amount of violence children watch on television allows prediction of their aggressiveness.
A researcher finds that the more a song is played on the radio, the greater the liking for the song. However, she also finds that if the song is played too much, people start to dislike the song. What type of relationship does this represent?
A disadvantage of role-playing is that
C. participants may unknowingly give inaccurate predictions.
According to the textbook, fraud is most serious when it is discovered in which two areas?
C. Science and journalism
What precautions can a scientist take to be protected against charges of fraud?
A. Keep careful, documented records of the research.
What is an Institutional Review Board (IRB)?
D. A group of scientists and nonscientists, members of the community, and legal specialists who review proposed research for ethical concerns.
Participants read an account of a crime in which the perpetrator was described as an attractive or unattractive woman. They then assigned the length of prison sentence they felt the woman deserved. The _____________ would be a _____________ variable.
B. woman's attractiveness; situational
The Zimbardo prison study had to be stopped in fewer than six days because
B. the participants took the roles they were playing too seriously.
When a researcher manipulates temperature of a room in order to examine the effect it has on task performance, the different temperature conditions are referred to as the ____________ of the variable.
Ethical concerns are especially important with special populations of participants such as ____________ because ____________.
A. mental patients; they are not as capable of refusing to participate if they don't want to
A measure has construct validity if it
D. measures what it is intended to measure.
An experimenter had one group of participants eat ice cream that was packaged in a red carton, whereas another group of participants ate the same flavor ice cream from a green carton. Participants then indicated how much they liked the ice cream by rating the taste on a 1-5 scale. The independent variable in this experiment was the
B. color of the carton.
If a participant has been deceived, ethical considerations require that a researcher conduct a
Kyle, a sophomore in high school, and his parents have signed written agreements allowing him to participate in a research study examining attitudes toward alcohol use by high school students. Kyle's agreement to participate is known as
Informed consent of participants is often a problem for researchers because
D. knowledge of the hypothesis may bias the participants' behavior.
If a positive relationship between amount of candy consumed and amount of weight gained in a month exists, what should the results be like?
B. The more candy consumed, the more weight that is gained
Which one of the following represents a critical difference between the nonexperimental and experimental methods?
C. Experimental methods involve the manipulation of variables while nonexperimental methods do not.
A researcher investigated the relationship between age and participation in a discussion on human sexuality. She found that younger students contributed more to the discussion than did older students. What was the research method used in this study?
In a research experiment, _____________ protects information that is revealed by the participants.
What is the primary advantage of a field experiment over a laboratory experiment?
D. Variables are investigated in a natural context.
Dr. Kramer found that the average number of miles driven decreases as the price of gasoline increases. This relationship can best be described as a _____________ relationship.
D. negative linear
Which of the following behaviors would best represent plagiarism?
B. All of these
The process of clearly identifying how a variable is measured or manipulated is referred to as the _____________ of the variable.
C. operational definition
When personal interviews are conducted as part of a research study, the identity of the participant might be known. In cases such as these, the researcher must
C. All of these
In Milgram's study on obedience, telling participants the purpose of the experiment was to study learning and memory was an example of
Dr. Silverman is interested in the daily activities of a group of 4th graders. He asks the children to indicate the amount of time per day they spend watching television, playing video games, and studying. This type of data gathering technique would be an example of a(n) _____________ approach.
If you ask teenagers to describe the behaviors of their parents that most upsets them, you would be using a(n) _____________ approach of data collection.
Dr. Smith participates in a police ride-along program in order to examine the day-to-day activities of police officers. This method of gathering information may best be described as
C. naturalistic observation.
Dr. P., who belongs to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), conducts naturalistic observation research during AA meetings. Dr. P. is a __________________ observer.nonparticipantparticipantconcealednonconcealedDr. P., who belongs to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), conducts naturalistic observation research during AA meetings. Dr. P. is a __________________ observer.
What is the difference between naturalistic observation and systematic observation?
D. Systematic observation studies are designed to confirm previously formed hypotheses, whereas naturalistic observation studies are not.
In a systematic observation study, two different people use the coding system to analyze the same videotape. The level of agreement between the two observers is then determined. This activity addresses which methodological issue in systematic observation?
A two-year account of the progress of a manic-depressive patient who is undergoing psychiatric care is an example of a
C. case study.
Abel and Kruger (2010) examined the relationship of positive emotions and longevity by examining smile intensity in photographs of major league players from 1952 and comparing it to age at time of death. This would be classified as __________________?
B. archival research
A person who tries to present himself or herself in a positive way on a questionnaire is showing a _____________ response set.
B. social desirability
"Should residents of the city spend more money on parks and road improvements?" is an example of a _____________ question.
"Are you in favor of programs designed to help lower the unreasonably high rent in the county?" is an example of a ____________ question
When interviewing Sarah, John nods his head and smiles whenever Sarah responds with an answer that he likes. John's behavior is an example of
C. interviewer bias.
A ___________ sample size will _____________ the size of the confidence interval.
B. large; reduce
You read in the newspaper that Proposition Q is favored by 57% of those polled. The results of the survey are said to be accurate within 2 percentage points using the 95 percent confidence interval. You can assume
D. 55 to 59 percent of the population favor Proposition Q.
The city council wants to examine their citizens' feelings about allowing dogs on the city's beaches. They construct a list of all the blocks in the city and randomly select 20% of the blocks to sample. They then survey all residents of the selected city blocks. This sampling strategy is an example of which of the following sampling techniques?
When a confound is discovered in an experiment,
A. internal validity is challenged.
An investigator wants to see whether packaging information affects the way people rate breakfast cereal. The same cereal is put in three packages: (a) a brown box that says, "To start your day off with a smile"; (b) a yellow box that says, "For extra energy all day"; and (c) a white box that says, "Fortified with B complex and iron." In this study the
D. package information is confounded with color of the box.
Internal validity means that
A. the results are valid within the confines of the experimental situation.
Which one of the following accurately describes an advantage of using a pretest-posttest design over using a posttest-only design? With a pretest-posttest design, one can
D. demonstrate the equivalence of the groups.
A researcher wants to examine the effect of room temperature on task performance. She places one group of participants in a room that is 54 degrees, a second group in a room that is 72 degrees, and a third in a room that is 90 degrees. She then measures the amount of time it takes each group to complete an identical task. This design would best represent a(n) __________ design.
A. independent groups
A developmental psychologist measures aggressive behavior in a group of second-grade children before and then again after viewing an aggressive cartoon. This design would best represent a(n) __________ design.
C. repeated measures
Participants in a concept learning study solve several anagram puzzles over the course of 30 minutes. Even though the puzzles were known to be of equal difficulty, participants solved the puzzles in less and less time as the 30-minute period progressed. This is likely the result of a(n) __________ effect.
To control for order effects in a repeated measures design, you should use
C. counterbalancing techniques.
A researcher wants to know whether wearing sunglasses improves driving performance. In a counterbalanced repeated measures design, presence or absence of sunglasses would be varied by
A. having half the drivers first drive without sunglasses and then with sunglasses and having the other half first drive with sunglasses and then without sunglasses.
A matched pairs design is used when
C. a researcher wants to ensure that independent groups are equivalent on some participant characteristic.
Which one of the following is a common reason for using a staged manipulation? The researcher desires to
A. simulate a real-world situation.
An important reason NOT to use the strongest manipulation possible is that it may
C. create a situation grossly different from a real world situation.
While in a shopping mall, a marketing researcher stops and asks you which you prefer: soda in a bottle or soda in a can. Your response would be an example of a _____________ measure.
Adam measures the length of time two people spend gazing into one another's eyes as an indication of interpersonal attraction. Adam is using which type of measure?
A researcher wants to examine the effect of noise level on reading comprehension. He finds that regardless of the noise level, all participants tested received the maximum scores for their performance. The results may be due to a _____________ effect.
Without informing them, a researcher assigns participants to either an experimental or placebo group. The researcher's assistants who test the participants do not know who belongs in which group. The experiment has used a
A. double-blind technique.
In order to find a curvilinear relationship, the researcher needs to use
C. three or more levels of the independent variable.
A factorial design involves
A. manipulating two or more independent variables.
B. an inability to specify the overall effect of an independent variable.
C. having multiple dependent measures.
D. All of these
A researcher states that "anxiety decreased performance irrespective of the participants' motivation levels." This statement tells you that there was a(n)
C. main effect of anxiety.
A researcher finds that for female applicants, the likelihood of being hired for a job increases as their work experience increases. However, for male applicants, the likelihood of being hired decreases as their work experience increases. This finding would suggest
C. an interaction between gender and work experience.
A 2 x 2 factorial design was used to study the effects of participant gender and style of persuasion on attitude change using 40 individuals. This is an example of a(n) ____________ design.
A. IV x PV
Male and female participants are asked to assign responsibility for a sexual assault on a woman who is modestly or provocatively dressed. In this study, type of dress would be a(n)
A marketing company wants to determine which cola beverage is most preferred by consumers. A group of participants tastes Cola A and then rates the taste. The group then tastes Cola B and rates the taste for this cola. A second group of participants follows the same procedure. However, they first taste Cola B and then Cola A. This is an example of what type of design?
D. 2 x 2 mixed factorial
From an ethical viewpoint, the ABAB design is preferred over the ABA design because
B. it does not seem right to end the design with the withdrawal of a treatment that may be beneficial to the participant.
Professor Briscoe finds that when he smiles and makes eye contact with Jeanne, she becomes more responsive to his questions. He tries the same behavior on David, Chris, and B.J. and finds that it also influences their responses to his questions. What type of single-case design did Professor Briscoe employ?
D. Across subjects multiple-baseline design
Mary discovered that her 7-year-old daughter, Maggie, was especially motivated by money. Mary began a reinforcement program whereby Maggie earned 5 cents every time she brushed her teeth. A month later, Mary instituted a payment schedule of 10 cents every time Maggie went to bed on time without complaining. Once these behaviors were firmly established, Maggie began earning money for every book she read. What kind of single-subject design did Mary employ?
C. Across behaviors multiple-baseline design
In a program designed to help teenagers gain summer employment, a researcher measures whether or not the program has actually increased the number of teenagers finding jobs. The researcher is involved in which phase of evaluation?
A. Outcome evaluation
A researcher learns that a program designed to reduce truancy in junior high school students is not successful because the staff has not been adequately trained to deal with truancy. This finding should have occurred in which phase of program evaluation?
D. Process evaluation
A researcher has children watch 30 minutes of violent television and then measures their aggressiveness. The researcher concludes that television violence causes aggressiveness. A problem here is that
A. there is no control group.
Dr. Gorton is studying the effect of exercise on cholesterol level. He first measures his patients' cholesterol level before recommending an exercise program and after one month of participating in an exercise program, he measures their cholesterol level again. What type of research design has Dr. Gorton employed?
C. One group pretest-posttest design
A researcher pretests a group of participants to determine their attitudes toward the use of alternative energy sources to replace crude oil. The researcher then initiates a program to convince them that they should invest in such alternatives. During this time, the price of gasoline rises $.50 per gallon. At the end of the program, the researcher retests and finds that the participants are much more positive in their attitudes. What threat to internal validity most likely accounts for this change?
A graduating college senior takes the GRE (Graduate Record Exam) and scores at the 95thpercentile. Six months later the senior retakes the exam after completing all undergraduate coursework and scores at the 89th percentile. What (other than boring coursework) most likely accounts for the lowered score?
C. Regression toward the mean
A human resources psychologist is interested in the effect of work schedule on job satisfaction. She compares satisfaction scores of workers who work five 8-hour shifts with workers who work four 10-hour shifts. What type of design has the manager employed?
B. Non-equivalent control group design
Sonny examines the number of traumatic head injuries that occurred in California for five years before and after the passage of a law requiring the wearing of a helmet. Sonny's design would be classified as a
B. interrupted time series design.
You go to several elementary schools where you test students who are in the first grade, third grade, and sixth grade to examine the effect of age on a reasoning ability task. You have used the ____________ method.