PTG 105-Exam 4-Pancreas 2

  1. What type of diabetes is associated with ketoacidosis?
    Type I
  2. What is ketoacidosis?
    Accumulation of acidic ketone bodies in the blood due to lack of fatty acid utilization (as would normally be stimulated by insulin)
  3. What I Hemoglobin A1c?
    Sugar attached to hemoglobin
  4. What does blood sugar in RBCs tell us?
    Idea of how much sugar has been around during the last 3 months
  5. What is the normal range for Hemoglobin A1c?
  6. In poorly controlled diabetes, what level is normal for hemoglobin A1c?
    8% or more
  7. In well controlled diabetes, what level is normal for hemoglobin A1c?
    Less than 7%
  8. What measure is more stable than blood sugar?
    Hemoglobin A1c
  9. What are signs of Ketoacidosis?
    • Blood pH decrease
    • Acetone breath
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Dehydration
    • Coma
  10. What is the major complication of Diabetic ketoacidosis?
  11. What type of diabetes usually causes ketoacidosis?
    Type I
  12. What is the treatment of ketoacidosis?
    • Immediate insulin
    • IV Fluids
  13. Why are the eyes, nerves and kidneys involved in diabetes?
  14. What is Microangiopathy?
    Thickening of the basement membrane of small vessels
  15. Why is Microangiopathy an important feature of diabetes?
    It is the cause of Nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy
  16. What are major complications of Type I and II diabetes?
    • Microangiopathy
    • Macrovascular disease
  17. What is macrovascular disease?
    • Accelerated atherosclerosis of large vessels, hypertension and stroke
    • Causes diabetic foot
  18. What is the cause of Diabetic foot?
    Macrovascular disease
  19. What type of neuropathy is found with Microangiopathy?
    • Peripheral
    • Autonomic
  20. What changes are seen in the kidney with Microangiopathy?
    • Periglomerular fibrosis
    • Kimmelstiel-Wilson (K/S) change in the glomerulus
    • Tremendous protein loss
  21. What type of retinopathy is common in diabetes?
    • Cataracts
    • Small hemorrhages/microanuerysms in the eye
  22. What is Diabetic foot?
    • Macrovascular disease causes reduced circulation to the peripheries
    • Allows for infection and gangrene to grow in the foot
  23. What is Charcot foot?
    Repeated unrecognized microtrauma due to neuropathy that reduces sensation of the foot
  24. What is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in working adults?
  25. What percent of lower extremity amputations are due to diabetes?
  26. What percent of new cases of end state renal disease are due to diabetes?
  27. What is the increase in risk for cardiovascular disease in individuals with Diabetes?
    2 to 4 fold increase
  28. What percent of ischemic heart disease deaths are attributed to diabetes?
  29. Is cancer associated with diabetes?
  30. What is the total annual cost of diabetes?
    98 billion
  31. What is the per capita cost for healthcare of people with diabetes?
  32. What is the per capita cost for healthcare of people without diabetes?
  33. What is Metformin?
    Type II diabetes drug that improves tolerance for glucose and improves insulin sensitivity
  34. What is Sulfonylurea
    A drug that enhances insulin secretion from the Beta cells
  35. What is a surgical treatment for Diabetes?
    Pancreas transplant
  36. What type of treatment differences are between type I and II diabetes?
    • Type I is treated with insulin
    • Type II is treated with insulin, diet, exercise, oral glucose lowing drugs
  37. What is secondary Diabetes Mellitus?
    Diabetes due to drugs or other diseases
  38. What other diseases cause secondary diabetes mellitus?
    • Pancreatitis
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Iron overload
    • Surgical removal of pancreas
    • Endocrine disorders (Acromegaly, Cushing’s)
  39. What type of drugs cause secondary DM?
    • Beta adrenergic agonists
    • Thiazide diuretics
Card Set
PTG 105-Exam 4-Pancreas 2
PTG 105-Exam 4-Pancreas 2