means toward the nose or forehead
toward the tail or spinal cords
What are the four major parts of the brain?
- - cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum)
- - cerebellum
- - dienchephalon
- - brainstem
What part of the brain is 83% of the brain's volume?
What part of the brain contains 50% of the brains neurons?
The brainstem consists of what 4 parts?
- - dienchephalon
- - midbrain
- - pons
- - medulla oblongata
What are the major landmarks of the cerebrum?
- - cerebral hemispheres
- - longitudinal fissure
- - gyri
- - sulci
- - corpus callosum
What is the longitudinal fissure?
Deep groove that separates the cerebral hemispheres
What is the corpus callosum?
Thick nerve bundle at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure that connects the cerebral hemispheres
Gray matter consists of?
The seat of neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses
White matter consists of?
bundles of axons (myelin)
What are major functions of the cerebrum?
- sensory and motor control intellectual emotional processing
What are the 3 parts of the diencephalon?
- - Thalamus
- - Hypothalamus
- - Epithalamus
What is the function of the thalamus?
Thalamic- central processing for sensory and motor impulses and memory
What is the function of the hypothalamus?
Endocrine and functions for hunger, thirst, temperature, and biorhythms
The lower brainstem consists of what parts?
- - Midbrain
- - Pons
- - Medulla Oblongata
What is the function of the midbrain?
It is a connection between the higher and lower brain
What is the function of the pons?
It is a connection between the higher and lower brain with a respiratory function
What is the function of the medulla oblongata?
It is a connection between the higher and lower brain with heart rate, coughing, vomiting, and blood vessel diameter functions.
What is the brain protected by?
- - Bone
- - Meninges
- - cerebrospinal fluid
If you drive a nail through the skull, in what order would you pass through the connective tissue membranes?
- - Dura mater
- - Arachnoid mater
- - Pia mater
What are the functions of the meninges?
- - Cover and protect the CNS
- - Protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
- - Contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
- - Forms partitions within the skull
What is meningitis? What is it caused by?
Inflammation of the meninges. Bacterial and virus invasion of the CNS by way of the nose and throat.
What are the symptoms of meningitis?
- High fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headache
- Diagnosed by examining the CSF for bacteria
What secretes the CSF in each lateral ventricle?
What are the three main functions of the CSF?
- - Buoyancy
- - Protection
- - Chemical Stability
What part of the brain has been maintained throughout most of our evolution?
What is the most inferior part of the brainstem?
What are the four centers that the Medulla Oblongata controls?
- - Cardiac Center
- - Vasomotor Center
- - Respiratory Center
- - Reflex Center
The pons is responsible for?
Connecting higher brain centers with the spinal cord. (Anything the body is told has to go through the pons)
The reticular formation in the pons helps with what other functions?
Where is the midbrain located?
Between the diencephalon and the pons
What is the visual reflex center in the midbrain?
What is the name of the auditory relay and startle reflex center in the midbrain?
The functional brain stem is composed of?
Networks of neurons working together and spanning wide areas of the brain