Sociology Exam 2

  1. Anomie
    The condition in which people are unsure of how to behave bc of absent, conflicting, or confusing norms.
  2. Strain theory
    the idea that people may engage in deviant behavior when they experience a conflict between goals and means available to obtain the goals.
  3. Sanctions
    rewards or punishment for obeying or violating a norm
  4. Social Control
    the techniques and strategies that regulate people's behavior in society.
  5. stigma
    a negative label that devalues a person and changes her on his self concept and social identity
  6. crime
    a violation of societal norms and rules for which punishment is specified by law.
  7. criminologists
    researchers who use scientific methods to study the nature, extent, cause and control of criminal behavior.
  8. deviance
    traits or bahaviors that violates expected rules or norms
  9. Social Stratification
    the hierarchical ranking of people in a society who have different access to valued resources, such as property, prestige, power, and status.
  10. Open Stratification System
    a system that is based on individual achievement and allows movement up or down
  11. Closed Stratification System
    a system in which movement from one social position to another is limited by ascribed statuses such as sex, skin color, and family background.
  12. Social Class
    a category of people who have a similar standing or rank in society based on wealth, education, power, prestige, and other valued resources.
  13. Wealth
    abundance of economic assets and material possessions that a person or family owns, including property and income.
  14. Prestige
    respect, recognition, or regard attached to social positions
  15. power
    the ability or individuals or groups to achieve goals, control events, and maintain influence over other despite opposition
  16. Socioeconomic Status (SES)
    an overall ranking of a person's position in the class hierarchy based on income, education, and occupation.
  17. Sex
    the biological characteristic with which we are born
  18. Gender
    learned attitudes and behaviors that characterize women and men
  19. gender identity
    a perception of oneself as either masculine or feminine
  20. gender roles
    the characteristics, attitudes, feelings, and behaviors that society expects of females and males
  21. Sexual Harrassment
    any unwanted sexual advance, request from for sexual favors, or other conduct of sexual nature that makes a person uncomfortable and interferes with her or his work .
  22. sexual identity
    our awareness of ourselves as males or famale and the ways that we express our sexual values, attitudes, feelings, and beliefs
  23. Race
    people who share physical characteristics, such as skin color and facial features, that are passes on through reproduction
  24. Ethnic group
    a group of people who identify with a common national origin or cultural heritage that includes language geographic roots, food, customs, traditions, and/or religion.
  25. Racial Ethnic Group
    people who have distinctive physical and cultural charateristics
  26. Minority
    a group of people who may be subject to differential and unequal treatment bc of their physical, cultural, or other characteristics such as sex, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, or skin color.
  27. Dominate Group
    any physically or culturally distinctive group that has the most economic and political power, the greatest privileges, and the highest social status.
  28. Assimilation
    the process of conforming to the culture of the dominant group, adopting its language and values, and intermarrying with that group.
  29. Segregation
    the physical and social separation of dominant and minority groups.
  30. racism
    a set of beliefs that one's own racial group is naturally superior to other groups.
  31. prejudice
    an attitude, positive or negative, toward people bc of their group membership
  32. discrimination
    any act that treats people unequally or unfairly bc of their group membership
  33. Economy
    a social institution that determines how a society produces, distributes, and consumers goods and services.
  34. Capitalism
    an economic systems in which wealth is in private hands and is invested ad reinvested to produce profits.
  35. Globalization
    the growth and spread of investment, trade, production, communication, and new technology around the world.
  36. Democracy
    a political system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions.
  37. authoritarianism
    a political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but permits some degree of individual freedom.
  38. Power Elite
    a small group of influential people who make the nation's major political decisions
  39. Family
    an intimate group consisting of two or more people who (1) live together in a committed relationship, (2) care for one another and any children, and (3) share close emotional ties and functions.
  40. ENDOgamy
    Cultural practice of marrying WITHIN one's group.
  41. EXOgamy
    Cultural practice of marrying OUTSIDE one's group
  42. Marriage
    A socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring.
  43. Patriarchal Family System
    the oldest men control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over females.
  44. Homogamy
    Marrying someone with similar characteristics such as race, ethnicity, age, education, social class, or religion.
  45. Polygamy
    a marriage form in which a man or owman has two or more spouses.
  46. Gerontologists
    Scientist who study the biological, psychological, and social aspects of aging.
  47. Activity Theory
    Proposes that many older people remain engaged in numerous roles and activities, including work.
  48. Exchange theory
    posits that people seek through their social interactions with other to maximize their rewards and minimize their costs.
  49. Continuity Theory
    Posists that older adults can substitute satisfying new roles for those they've lost.
  50. Sexual Orientation
    a preference for sexual partners of the same sex, of the opposite sex, of both sexes or neither sex.
  51. Socialism
    an economic system based on the principles of the public ownership of the production of goods and services.
  52. Charismatic authority
    power based on exceptional individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience.
Card Set
Sociology Exam 2
ccc exam 2