Exam 4

  1. What are the S&S of herpesvirus - HSV1 & HSV2?
    • Watery blisters in skin or mucous membranes
    • Lesions healing w/scab characteristic herpetic disease
  2. HSV1 which produces most ___ ___ and HSV2 which produces most ___ ___ are ___ and ___.
    • Cold Sores
    • Genital Herpes
    • Ubiquitous 
    • Contagious
  3. HSV-1 and -2 are transmitted by what means?
    Contact with an infectious area of the skin during re-activations of the virus.
  4. Explain the life cycle of a cold sore
    • Sm hard, tingling spot on lip
    • Appearance of fluid filled blister
    • Blister breaks, releasing infectious virions
    • Yellow crust appears & peals off w/o scar 
  5. Cold sores caused by herpes generally clear up in ___-___ days w/o tx. 
    7-10 days
  6. When is possibility of transmission of HSV1 highest?
    Fr time blisters appear until they have completely dried and crusted over
  7. After the primary herpes infection, the virus enters ___ ___ & becomes ___ in nearby sensory ___.
    • Sensory neurons
    • Latent
    • Ganglia
  8. Name some factors that can cause a reactivation of HSV1 virus.
    • Trauma
    • Stress ie fever, menstruation, emotional disturbance
    • Environmental factors ie exposure to UV ligt
  9. How is HSV1 transmission limited or prevented?
    • No kissing during outbreak
    • Hand washing
    • Not touching other areas of body
  10. A herpes infection of the eye is known as ___ ___, and can cause what eye inj's?
    • Herpes Keratitis
    • Scarring of the cornea leading to blindness
  11. What is the primary route of transmission for genital herpes?
    Sexual contact
  12. It is highly unlikely that a person could contract a herpes infection through contact with toilets or other objects used by an infected person.  Why?
    The virus dies quickly outside the body
  13. What are common S&S of HSV2?
    • Itching or throbbing in genital area
    • Reddening, swelling, pain in small area
    • Blisters erupt, crust over & sores disappear
  14. For many individuals infected by HSV2 becomes latent remaining in ___ ___  nr blisters.  S&S are often reactivated by ___ ___ & can reappear ___ - ___ times/yr.
    • Nerve cells
    • Stressful situations
    • 3-8 times/yr
  15. People w/active herpes lesions are highly ___ & can pass the virus during ___ ___.
    • Infectious
    • Sexual contact
  16. Although there is no cure cure for genital herpes, ___ drugs such as acyclovir can do what?
    • Antiviral 
    • Help heal sores & reduce recurrent infections
  17. ____ is caused by a brick-shaped, double stranded DNA virus of the ___ family.
    • Smallpox
    • Poxviridae
  18. Smallpox is transmitted via ___ ___.
    Direct contact
  19. The smallpox nucleocapsid is surrounded by a series of ___-___ ___ w/an ___.
    • Fiber-like rods
    • Envelope
  20. What are the S&S of the earliest S&S of smallpox?
    • High fever
    • General body weakness
    • Malaise
    • Vomiting 
  21. What is the incubation period for smallpox?
    7-17 days
  22. The early days of smallpox (days 1&2) are characterized by what S&S?
    • Rash occurs on tongue & in mouth
    • Sores develop & break open spreading to mouth & throat
    • Rash appears on skin - Face -> arms/legs -> hands/feet -> rest of body
    • Fever drops & person feels better
  23. Day 3 of smallpox is characterized by what event?
    Rash becomes raised bumps
  24. Day 4 of the smallpox is characterized by raised bumps filling with ___, ___ fluid & have a ___ in the center.  ___ often occurs again until ___ form over the bumps.
    • Thick, opaque
    • Depression
    • Fever
    • Scabs
  25. During the pustular rash stage of smallpox, which lasts about ___ days, what happens?
    • 5 days
    • Bumps become pustules - sharply raised, round & firm to touch
    • Comparable to BBs under the skin
  26. During the pustules & scabs stage of smallpox which lasts ___ days, pustules begin to form a ___ and then ___.
    • 5 days
    • Crust
    • Scab
  27. Within 3 weeks after the smallpox rash appears scabs begin to fall off leaving what behind?
    Marks on the skin that become pitted scars
  28. What are the 7 stages of smallpox?
    • Incubation period
    • Initial symptoms
    • Early rash
    • Pustular rash
    • Pustules & scabs
    • Resolving scabs
    • Scabs resolved
  29. During which stage of smallpox is the patient most contagious?
    The early rash stage
  30. During what stages is a smallpox patient not contagious?
    • Incubation period 
    • Scab resolution
  31. Monkeypox is a rare viral disease occuring mostly in ___ & ___ ___.
    Central & West Africa
  32. How is monkeypox transmitted?
    • Infected animal bite
    • Contact w/bodily fluids of infected animal
    • Lg resp droplets
    • Body fluids of sick person
    • Contaminated bedding or clothing
  33. What are the S&S of monkeypox?
    • Fever
    • Resp symptoms
    • Swollen Lymph nodes
    • Rash progressing to pustules
  34. Why are retroviruses particularly onerous?
    The fact that they insert their genome directly into the host chromosome
  35. Retroviruses use ___ ___ to transcribe their RNA to DNA
    Reverse transcriptase
  36. Generally, how do viruses cause cancer?
    • By viral DNA insertion into host chromosomes (lysogeny) either disrupting suppressor gene sequences or by adding to the number of stimulator genes 
    • Turns your healthy cells into cancerous cells.
  37. What are prions?
    Infectious proteins in misfolded form
  38. How do rhinoviruses and adenoviruses differ? 
    Rhinoviruses are a broad grp of over 100 different naked, icosahedral, ssRNA viruses where as adenoviruses are over 50 types of nonenveloped, icosahedral virions having dsDNA
  39. Explain the "H" in influenza.
    • H short for hemaglutinin
    • Type of spike
    • Facilitates attachment & penetration 
    • Shape determines host range & tropism
  40. Explain the "N" in influenza virus strains.
    • N for neuraminidase
    • Type of spike
    • 9 different subtypes
    • Protein assisting in release of virions fr host cell when replication complete
  41. What are some animal vectors we discovered?
  42. What does TORCH stand for?
    • Toxoplasmosis
    • Other infections
    • Rubella
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • Herpes simplex virus 2
  43. The acronym ___ has been coined to focus attn on diseases w/congenital significance & induced by microbial teratogens.
  44. A ___ is an agent that interferes w/the normal development of a fetus.
  45. What is meant by epidemic?
    Referring to a disease that spreads more quickly & more extensively within a population than normally expected
  46. A ___ is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread through human populations across a large region; ie multiple continents, or  worldwide.
  47. ___ refers to a disease that is constantly present in a specific region or area.
  48. ___ is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.
  49. ___ is an RNA virus, usually spread by fecal-oral route; transmitted person-to-person by ingestion of contaminated food or water or through direct contact with an infectious person. 
    Hepatitis A
  50. What are S&S of Hepatitis A?
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Nausea
    • Apetite loss
    • Jaundice
  51. What is tx for Hepatitis A?
    • No specific tx
    • Rest
    • Avoid fatty foods & alcohol
    • Eat well balanced diet
    • Stay hydrated
  52. How can Hep A be prevented?
    • Vaccination
    • Good hygiene
    • Sanitation
  53. What are the 2 types of Hep A vaccine?
    • One containing inactivated Hep A virus
    • One containing live but attenuated virus
  54. ___ is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver that affects hominoidea, including humans.
    Hepatitis B
  55. What are the S&S of Hep B virus?
    • Fatigue
    • Loss of appetite
    • N/V
    • Jaundice
    • Abd tenderness
  56. How is Hep B transmitted?
    • Direct or indirect contact with body fluids
    • ie shared needles, improperly sterilized medical equipment
  57. ____ refers to the destruction or lysis of cells.
  58. Hep B has a ___ incubation period of ___ ___ to ___ ___ during which time it infects the ___ but is not cytolytic.
    • 4 weeks
    • 6 months
    • Liver
  59. T or F; Hep B can be prevented by immunization with any of several hep B vaccines.
  60. Hep B vaccines consist of ___ produced by genetically engineered yeast cells.
  61. Injections of interferon alpha-2b can be used to treat what infection?
    Hepatitis B
  62. Which hepatitis is an enveloped +ssRNA virus of the Flaviviridae family?
    Hepatitis C
  63. How is the Hep C virus transmitted?
    • Blood
    • IV drug Use
    • Blood Transfusions
    • Accidentally thru medical intervention
  64. What are 2 common complications of Hep C?
    • Cirrhosis
    • Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
  65. Name 2 major cofactors that accelerate incidence of chronic hepatitis C.
    • Alcoholism
    • IV drug use
  66. ___ ___ & ___ are standard therapies for Hepatitis C. 
    • Interferon alpha
    • Ribavirin
  67. What vaccine is available for Hepatitis C?
  68. What 2 viruses cause Hepatitis D?
    HBV & HDV
  69. HDV consists of a protein fragment called ___ ___and a segment of ___ & can only cause liver damage when ___ is present.
    • Delta antigen
    • RNA
    • HBV
  70. HDV requires an outside coat of what to infect cells?
  71. One cannot become infected w/hepatitis D unless he or she os already infected w/___.
    Hepatitis B
  72. T or F; The vaccine for hepatitis B protects against hepatitis D virus because of the latter's dependence on the presence of hepatitis B virus for it to replicate .
  73. Which hepatitis is an opportunistic emergent disease caused by naked, +ssRNA virus of the Caliciviridae family.
    Hepatitis E
  74. What is the route of transmission of Hepatitis E?
    • Indirectly thru water 
    • Zoonosis
  75. What is the Tx of Hepatitis E?
    • No specific tx
    • Rest
    • Avoid fatty foods & alcohol
    • Eat well balanced diet
    • Stay hydrated
  76. Who are particularly susceptible to Hepatitis E?
    Pregnant women in developing nations
  77. What are the S&S of Hepatitis E?
    • Nausea 
    • Muscle Pain
    • Low grade fever
  78. Which virus is a -ssRNA virion of the Rhabdoviridae family w/only 5 genes in its genome?
  79. What does the rabies virus look like?
    A bullet - rounded @ one end & flattened at the other
  80. A majority of rabies cases come fr which 2 animals?
    Bats and Raccoons
  81. How is rabies transmitted?
    Via a bite fr a rabid animal
  82. What are the S&S of a rabies infection?
    • Tingling, burning, coldness at a bite site
    • Fever
    • HA
    • Muscle tension
    • Paralysis
    • Hydrophobia
  83. What are treatments for rabies virus?
    • Rabies immune globulin
    • Rabies vaccine
  84. Which virus is part of the Picornaviridae family and composed of naked-icosahedron shaped capsid containing a +ssRNA genome.
  85. How does the polio virus enter the body?
    Contaminated food and water
  86. What are the S&S of polio?
    • Nausea 
    • Vomiting 
    • Cramps
  87. When polio passes through the blood stream and into the meninges it causes ___ & if it affects the medulla of the brain it is called ___ polio.
    • Meningitis
    • Bulbar
  88. What are the 3 types of polio?
    • Type 1 causes major # of epidemics & sometimes paralysis
    • Type 2 occurs sporadically but invariably causes paralysis
    • Type 3 usually remains in the intestinal tract
  89. What are the names, what they are made of and routes of the 2 polio vaccines?
    • Sabin vaccine - attenuated poliovirus - oral
    • Salk vaccine - inactivated virus - IM
  90. Both polio vaccines are said to be trivalent.  What does this mean?
    They contain all 3 strains of the virus
  91. What was the one major drawback to the Sabin vaccine?
    It being a live vaccine, a few cases of vaccine-caused polio occurred
  92. Since there is no cure for polio, what is the focus of care?
    • Providing relief of symptoms
    • Preventing complications
    • Antibiotics
    • Analgesics for pain
    • Longterm rehab
    • Ventilators for breathing support - Iron lung
  93. Who did work with yellow fever?
    Walter reed
  94. Patients w/___ fever often report intense muscle and joint pain, sensations like their bones are breaking; thus the disease has been called ___ ___.
    • Dengue 
    • Breakbone Fever
  95. S&S of ebola/marburg hemorrhagic fevers include what?
    • Fever
    • HA 
    • Joint/muscle aches
    • Sore throat 
    • Weakness 
    • Internal hemorrhage
  96. What is the vector of hemorrhagic fever?
  97. What is caused by the rhinovirus?
    Common Head Cold
  98. Why could smallpox be utilized for bioterrorism.
    B/c the US on a whole ceased vaccination against smallpox in 1972
  99. Which viruses cause cancer and what cancer do they cause?
    • Human Papilloma Viruses - cervical cancer
    • HBV/HCV - Liver cancer
    • Human herpes virus - Kaposi sarcoma
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Exam 4
Exam 4 cards