Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800

  1. census -
    An official count of population; in the United States, the federal census occurs every ten  years.  “…the first official census of 1790 recorded almost 4 million people.”
  2. public debt -
    The debt of a government or nation to individual creditors, also called the national debt. “…the public debt…was mountainous.”
  3. cabinet -
    The body of official advisers to the head of a government; in the United States, it consists of the heads of the major executive departments. “The Constitution does not mention a cabinet…”
  4. circuit court -
    A court that hears cases in several designated locations rather than a single place. “The act organized…federal district and circuit courts…”
  5. fiscal -
    Concerning public finances-expenditures and revenues. “His plan was to shape the fiscal policies of the administration…”
  6. assumption -
    The appropriation or taking on of obligations not originally one’s own. “The secretary made a convincing case for ‘assumption.’”
  7. excise -
    A tax on the manufacture, sale, or consumption of certain products. “Hamilton…secured from Congress an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.”c
  8. stock -
    The shares of capital ownership gained from investing in a corporate enterprise; the term also refers to the certificates representing such shares. “Stock was thrown open to public sale.”
  9. medium of exchange -
    Any item, paper or otherwise, used as money.  “They regarded [whiskey] as a …medium of exchange.”
  10. despotism -
    Arbitrary or tyrannical rule. “The American people, loving liberty and deploring despotism, were pleased.”
  11. impress -
    To force people or property into public service without choice. “They…impressed scored of seamen into service on English vessels…”
  12. assimilation -
    The merging of diverse cultures or peoples into one. “The drastic new law violated the traditional American policy…speedy assimilation.”
  13. witch-hunt -
    An investigation carried on with much publicity, supposedly to uncover dangerous activity but actually intended to weaken the political opposition. “Anti-French hysteria played directly into the hands of witch-hunting conservatives.”
  14. compact -
    An agreement or covenant between states to perform some legal act. “Both Jefferson and Madison stressed the compact theory…”
  15. nullification -
    In American politics, the assertion that a state may legally invalidate a federal act deemed inconsistent with its rights or sovereignty. “[The] resolutions concluded that…’nullification’ was the ‘rightful remedy.’”
Card Set
Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800
Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State, 1789-1800