PTG 105-Exam 4-Muscles I

  1. 1 organ of the muscular system is defined as:
    1 whole skeletal muscle
  2. Each muscle consists of what parts?
    • Skeletal muscle tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Nerve tissue
    • Vascular tissue.
  3. Skeletal muscles vary considerably in what aspects?
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Arrangement of fibers
  4. What is the stapedium?
    Tiny muscle of the middle ear
  5. Define Atrophy:
    Wasting or loss of muscle tissue resulting from disease or lack of use.
  6. Define Dystrophy:
    Muscle wasting /weakness due to disease of muscle itself (nerves are intact and normal)
  7. What is Most atrophy is due to?
    Lack of use
  8. What is most lack of use atrophy is caused by?
    Sedentary jobs or decreased activity of the elderly
  9. How is lack of use atrophy reversed?
    Vigorous exercise
  10. What are the Two types/causes of muscle atrophy?
    • Nerve damage
    • Muscle disease
  11. Name Diseases of the nerves causing atrophy:
    • Poliomyelitis
    • Guillain-Barre syndrome
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
  12. Name Diseases of the muscle that cause atrophy?
    • Duchenne muscular distrophy
    • Congenital or inflammatory muscle disease
  13. Neurogenic muscle atrophy is due to what?
    • Deprivation of normal muscle innervation
    • muscle develops atrophy
  14. Describe the clinical presentation of Neurogenic muscle atrophy :
    localized or generalized muscle weakness, may involve respiratory muscles
  15. Histologically, what do Neurogenic muscle fibers look like?
    Smaller than normal.
  16. Is there nerve damage associated with muscular dystrophy?
    No, nerve supply is intact
  17. How do you get Muscular dystorphy?
  18. Describe muscular dystrophy:
    • Inherited disease that results in spontaneous progressive muscle degeneration
  19. What disease is inherited and results in spontaneous progressive muscle degeneration without nerve loss?
    Muscular dystrophy
  20. What is the most common type of muscular dystrophy?
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  21. How is Duchenne muscular dystrophy acquired?
    X-linked recessive
  22. What is the etiology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
    No Dystrophin (structural protein that imparts muscle strength/flexibility)
  23. What disease is marked by a lack of Dystrophin?
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  24. What is the age of onset for Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
    5 years
  25. When do most Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients die?
    Around 20 years old
  26. Describe the clinical changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
    • Image Upload 1
    • Starts with proximal limb muscle weakness
    • Shoulder and pelvic girdle are involved
    • Diff. waking/getting up from floor, climbing stairs
    • Muscle atrophy develops
  27. What is distinct about the calf muscles in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
    Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles due to fat deposition
  28. What disease is marked by Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscle?
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  29. What causes death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients?
    Cardiac or respiratory failure
  30. A child that has difficulty walking, getting up from the floor and climbing stairs may have what disease?
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
  31. What sex is more prone to Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
    Males because it is X linked
Card Set
PTG 105-Exam 4-Muscles I
PTG 105-Exam 4-Muscles I