the equilibrium constant for the reaction of the acid with water to generate H3O+ ions. Ka is equal to the concentration of the h3o ions times the concentration of the base all divided by the concentration of the acid
dissociates in water to give H3O+ ions
dissociates in water to form OH- ions
electron pair acceptor electrophile
electron pair donor nucleophile
the aid that results from protoation of a base
the base that results from the loss of a proton from an acid
bonding that occurs by the sharing of electrons in the region between two nuclei
a covalent bond involving the sharing of one pair of electrons
a double bond involving the sharing of two pairs of electrons
a covalent bond involving the sharing of three pairs of electrons
curved arrow formalism
a method of drawing curved arrows to keep track of electron movement from nucleophile to electrophile (or withing a molecule) during the course of a reaction
orbitals with identical energies
a measure of the polarity of a bond (or a molecule), proportional to the product of the charge separation times the bond length
the relative probability of finding an electron in a certain region of space
a measure of an element's ability to attract electons. Elements with higher electronegativity attract electrons more strongly
an electron pair acceptor or Lewis acid
ratios of atoms in a compound.
a method for keeping track of charges
When there are two or more unfilled orbitals of the same energy the lowest energy configuration places the electrons in different orbitals
bonding that occurs by the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons: atoms of the smae element but with different atomic masses.
a structural formula that shows all the valence electrons, with the bonds symbolized by dashes or by pairs of dots, and nonbonding electrons symbolized by dots.
a pair of nonbonding electrons
the number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a compound
a region in an orbital with zero electron density
a flat region of space with zero electron density
an electron pair donor or lewis base
atoms generally form bonding arrangements that give them filled shells of electrons. for the second row elements, this configuration has eight valence electrons
an allowed energy state for an electron bound to a nucleus: the probability function that defines the distribution of electron dnsity in space
the pauli exclusion principle
states that up to two electrons can occupy each orbital if their spins are paired
the chemistry of carbon compounds
A measure of the acidity of a solution, defined as the negative log of the H3O+ concentration
Polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally.
a molexule or ion for which two or more valid Lewis structures canbe drawn, differing only in the placementof the valence electrons
the nuber of bonds an atom usually forms
those electrons that are in the outermost shell
the belief that syntheses of organic compounds require the presence of a vital force.