Esthetician Fundamentals

  1. Esthetician/Aesthetician
    Person devoted to, or professionally occupied with, skin health and beauty.
  2. Esthetics/Aesthetics
    • Branch of anatomical science that deals with the overall health and well-being of the skin, the largest organ of the human body;
    • From the Greek word aesthetikos, meaning "perceptible to the senses."
  3. Henna
    • Dye obtained from the powdered leaves and shoots of the mignonette tree;
    • Used as a reddish hair dye and in tattooing.
  4. Medical Aesthetics
    Intigration of surgical procedures & esthetic treatments.
  5. Nanotechnology
    Manipulation of materials on an atomic or molecular scale, or the "micronization" of ingredients.
  6. Ethics
    Principles of good character, proper conduct, and moral judgment, expressed through personality, human relations skills, and professional image.
  7. Personal Hygiene
    The daily maintenance of cleanliness & healthfulness through certain sanitary practices.
  8. Physical Presentation
    Your physical presentation is made up of your posture, walk, & movements. It can enhance or detract from your attractiveness & is an important part of your well-being.
  9. Professional Image
    The impression you project as a person engaged in the profession of esthetics. It consists of your outward appearance & the conduct you exhibit in the workplace.
  10. Client Consultation
    Verbal communication with a client to determine desired results.
  11. Communication
    The act of accurately sharing information between two people, or groups of people.
  12. Reflective Listening
    Listening to the client & then repeating, in your own words, what you think the client is telling you.
  13. Acquired Immunity
    Immunity developed after the body overcomes a disease, or through inoculation.
  14. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome; a disease caused by the HIV virus that breaks down the body’s immune system.
  15. Antiseptics
    Agents that may kill, retard, or prevent the growth of bacteria.
  16. Aseptic Procedure
    Process of properly handling sterilized & disinfected equipment & supplies so that they do not become contaminated by microorganisms until they are used on a client.
  17. Asymptomatic
    Showing no symptoms or signs of infection.
  18. Autoclave
    Apparatus for sterilization by steam under pressure.
  19. Bacilli (singular: bacillus)
    Short, rod-shaped bacteria; the most common bacteria; produce diseases such as tetanus (lock-jaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, & diphtheria.
  20. Bacteria
    One-celled microorganisms with both plant & animal characteristics; also known as microbes.
  21. Bactericidal
    Capable of destroying bacteria.
  22. Blood borne Pathogens
    Disease-causing bacteria or viruses that are carried through the body in the blood or body fluids.
  23. Cilia
    Hair-like extensions that protrude from cells & help to sweep away fluids & particles.
  24. Cocci
    Round bacteria that appear alone or in groups.
  25. Communicable
    When a disease spreads from one person to another by contact.
  26. Contagious
    Communicable or transmittable by contact.
  27. Contaminants
    Substances that can cause contamination.
  28. Contaminated
    When an object or product has microorganisms in or on it.
  29. Cross-Contamination
    Contamination that occurs when you touch an object, such as the skin, & then touch an object or product with the same hand or utensil.
  30. Decontamination
    Removal of pathogens & other substances from tools & surfaces.
  31. Dermatophytes
    A type of fungi that cause skin, hair & nail infections.
  32. Diplococci
    Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs & cause diseases such as pneumonia.
  33. Disinfectants
    Chemical agents used to destroy most bacteria, fungi, & viruses & to disinfect implements & surfaces.
  34. Disinfection
    Second-highest level of decontamination, nearly as effective as sterilization but does not kill bacterial spores; used on hard, nonporous surfaces.
  35. Efficacy
  36. Exposure Incident
    A specific contact of a client’s blood or other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) with the esthetician’s eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes as a result of performing services & duties.
  37. Flagella (singular: flagellum)
    Long threads attached to the cell to help it move.
  38. Fungi (singular: fungus)
    Vegetable (plant) parasites, including molds, mildews, & yeasts.
  39. Fungicidal
    Capable of destroying fungi.
  40. General Infection
    Infection that results when the bloodstream carries pathogens & their toxins (poisons) to all parts of the body.
  41. Hepatitis
    Disease marked by inflammation of the liver & caused by a blood borne virus.
  42. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
    Human immunodeficiency virus; virus that causes AIDS.
  43. Immunity
    Ability of the body to resist infection & destroy pathogens that have infected the body.
  44. Infection
    The invasion of boy tissues by disease-causing pathogenic bacteria.
  45. Local Infection
    Infection that is confined to a particular part of the body & is indicated by a lesion containing pus.
  46. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
    Information compiled by a manufacturer about its product, ranging from ingredient content & associated hazards to combustion levels & storage requirements.
  47. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
    A highly resistant form of staph infection that can be caused by the overuse of antibiotics.
  48. Microorganisms
    Any organism of microscopic to submicroscopic size.
  49. Motility
    Cell motility refers to single-celled organisms & their ability to move in their environment.
  50. Nitrile Gloves
    Gloves made from synthetic rubbers known as acrylo-nitrile & butadiene; these gloves are resistant to tears, punctures, chemicals & solvents.
  51. Natural Immunity
    An inherent resistance to disease.
  52. Nonpathogenic
    Not harmful; not disease producing.
  53. Parasite
    Organism that lives in or on another organism & draws its nourishment from that organism.
  54. Pathogenic
    Causing disease; harmful.
  55. Pediculosis
    Skin disease caused by infestation with head lice.
  56. Phenol
    Carbolic acid; a caustic poison; used for peels & to sanitize metallic implements.
  57. Protozoa
    Single-celled parasites with the ability to move; they can divide & grow only when inside a host.
  58. Pseudomonacidal
    Capable of destroying Pseudomonas bacteria.
  59. Pus
    Fluid product of inflammation that contains white blood cells & the debris of dead cells, tissue elements, & bacteria.
  60. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (Quats)
    Disinfectants that are considered nontoxic, odorless & fact acting.
  61. Sanitation
    Third level of decontamination; significantly reduces the number of [pathogens or disease-0producting organisms found on a surface.
  62. Scabies
    Contagious skin disease caused by an itch mite burrowing under the skin.
  63. Spirilla
    Spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause syphilis, Lyme disease & other diseases.
  64. Staphylococci
    Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes; cause abscesses, pustules, & boils.
  65. Sterilization
    Highest level of decontamination; completely kills every organism on a nonporous surface.
  66. Streptococci
    Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads; cause infections such as strep throat & blood poisoning.
  67. Tuberculocidal
    Capable of destroying the bacteria that cause tuberculosis.
  68. Tuberculosis
    A bacterial disease that usually affects the lungs.
  69. Universal Precautions
    Set of guidelines & controls, published by OSHA, that requires the employer & the employee to assume that all human blood & specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, hepatitis B virus, & other blood borne pathogens.
  70. Virucidal
    Capable of destroying viruses.
  71. Virus
    Microorganism that can invade plants & animals, including bacteria.
  72. Absorption
    The transport of fully digested food into the circulatory system to feed the tissues & cells.
  73. Anabolism
    Constructive metabolism;the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
  74. Anatomy
    The study of the structure of the body that can be seen with the naked eye & what it is made up of;the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.
  75. Angular Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the side of the nose.
  76. Anterior Auricular Artery
    Artery that supplied blood to the front part of the ear.
  77. Aponeurosis
    Tendon that connects the occipitalis & the frontalis.
  78. Arteries
    Thick-walled muscular & flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries throughout the body.
  79. Atrium
    One of the two upper chambers of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles.(plural: atria)
  80. Auricularis Anterior
    Muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward.
  81. Auricularis Posterior
    Muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.
  82. Auricularis Superior
    Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.
  83. Auriculotemporal Nerve
    Nerve that affects the external ear & skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.
  84. Autonomic Nervous System
    The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles;Regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, & heart.
  85. Axon
    The process, or extension, of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the body of the cell.
  86. Belly (Muscle)
    Middle part of a muscle.
  87. Biceps
    Muscle producing the contour of the front & inner side of the upper arm.
  88. Blood
    Nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, veins, arteries, & capillaries).
  89. Brain
    • Part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium;
    • Largest & most complex nerve tissue;Controls sensation, muscles, glandular activity, & the power to think & feel.
  90. Brain Stem
    Structure that connects the spinal cord to the brain.
  91. Buccal Nerve
    Nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth.
  92. Buccinator
    Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper & lower jaw that compresses the cheeks & expels air between the lips.
  93. Capillaries
    Thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.
  94. Cardiac Muscle
    The involuntary muscle that makes up the heart.
  95. Carpus
    The wrist;Flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments.
  96. Catabolism
    The phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds, with the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular efforts, secretions, or digestion.
  97. Cell Membrane
    Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm & permits soluble substances to enter & leave the cell.
  98. Cells
    Basic unit of all living things;Minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.
  99. Central Nervous (Cerebrospinal) System
    Cerebrospinal nervous system;Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, & cranial nerves.
  100. Cerebellum
    Lies at the base of the cerebrum & is attached to the brain stem;This term is Latin for “little brain.”
  101. Cerebrum
    Makes up the bulk of the brain & is located in the front, upper part of the cranium.
  102. Cervical Cutaneous Nerve
    Nerve located at the side of the neck that affects the front & sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.
  103. Cervical Nerves
    Nerves that originate at the spinal cord, whose branches supply the muscles & scalp at the back of the head & neck.
  104. Cervical Vertebrae
    The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region.
  105. Circulatory System
    System that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart & blood vessels.
  106. Clavicle
    Collarbone;Bone joining the sternum & scapula.
  107. Common Carotid Arteries
    Arteries that supply blood to the face, head, & neck.
  108. Connective Tissue
    Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, & supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, & tendons.
  109. Corrugator Muscle
    Facial muscle that draws eyebrows down & wrinkles the forehead vertically.
  110. Cranium
    Oval, bony case that protects the brain.
  111. Cytoplasm
    All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus;The watery fluid containing food material necessary for cell growth, reproduction, & self-repair.
  112. Defecation
    Elimination of foods from the body.
  113. Deltoid
    Large, triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward & to the side of the body.
  114. Dendrites
    Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell;Short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell.
  115. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    The blueprint material of genetic information;Contains all the information that controls the function of every living cell.
  116. Depressor Labii Inferioris
    • Muscle surrounding the lower lip;
    • Depresses the lower lip & draws it to once side;Also known as quadrates labii inferioris.
  117. Diaphragm
    Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region & helps control breathing.
  118. Diencephalon
    Located in the uppermost part of the midbrain;Consists of two main parts, the thalamus & the hypothalamus.
  119. Digestion
    Breakdown of food by mechanical & chemical means.
  120. Digestive Enzymes
    Chemicals that change certain kinks of food into a form that can be used by the body.
  121. Digestive System
    The mouth, stomach, intestines, & salivary & gastric glands that change food into nutrients & wastes.
  122. Digital Nerve
    Nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers & toes.
  123. Eleventh Cranial Nerve (Accessory)
    A type of motor nerve that controls the motion of the neck muscles.
  124. Endocrine (Ductless) Glands
    Ductless glands that release hormonal secretions directly into the bloodstream
  125. Endocrine System
    Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, & health of the entire body.
  126. Epicranius
    Broad muscle that covers the top of the skull;Also called occipito-frontalis.
  127. Epithelial Tissue
    • Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, & lining of the heart;
    • Digestive & respiratory organs;& glands.
  128. Ethmoid Bone
    Light, spongy bone between the eye sockets that forms part of the nasal cavities.
  129. Excretory System
    Group of organs – including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine, & lungs – that purify the body by elimination of waste matter.
  130. Exocrine (Duct) Glands
    Duct glands that produce a substance that travels through small tubelike ducts, such as the dusoriferous (sweat) glands & the sebaceous (oil) glands.
  131. Extensors
    Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, & fingers to form a straight line.
  132. External Carotid Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck, & side of the head.
  133. External Jugular Vein
    Vein located on the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart form the head, face, & neck.
  134. Facial Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, & nose;Also called external maxillary artery.
  135. Fifth Cranial Nerve
    • Chief sensory nerve of the face;
    • Controls chewing;Also known as trifacial or trigeminal nerve.
  136. Flexors
    Extensor muscles of the wrist, involved in flexing the wrist.
  137. Frontal Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the forehead & upper eyelids.
  138. Frontal Bone
    Bone forming the forehead.
  139. Frontalis
    Anterior or front portion of the epicranium;Muscle of the scalp.
  140. Glands
    A cell or group of cells that produce & release substances used nearby or in another part of the body.
  141. Greater Auricular Nerve
    Nerve at the sides of the neck affecting the face, ears, neck & parotid gland.
  142. Greater Occipital Nerve
    Nerve located in the back of the head, affecting the scalp.
  143. Heart
    Muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system.
  144. Hemoglobin
    Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen.
  145. Histology
    Study of the structure & composition of tissue.
  146. Hormones
    Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands & carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body, or a body organ, to stimulate functional activity or secretion.
  147. Humerus
    Uppermost & largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.
  148. Hyoid Bone
    U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue & its muscle.
  149. Immune or Lymphatic System
    Body system made up of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, & lymph vessels. Functions protect the body from disease by developing immunities & destroying disease-causing microorganisms as well as draining the tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids to the blood. It carries waste & impurities away from the cells.
  150. Inferior Labial Artery
    Supplies blood to the lower lip.
  151. Infraorbital Artery
    Artery that originates from the internal maxillary artery & supplies blood to the eye muscles.
  152. Infraorbital Nerve
    Nerve that affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, & mouth.
  153. Infratrochlear Nerve
    Nerve that affects the membrane & skin of the nose.
  154. Ingestion
    Eating or taking food into the body.
  155. Insertion
    The point where the skeletal muscle is attached to a bone or other more movable body part.
  156. Integumentary System
    The skin & its accessory organs, such as the oil & sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair & nails.
  157. Internal Carotid Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose & internal ear.
  158. Internal Jugular Vein
    Vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain & parts of the face & neck.
  159. Interstitial
    The fluid in spaces between the tissue cells.
  160. Joint
    Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.
  161. Lacrimal Bones
    Small, thin bones located in the anterior medial wall of the orbits (eye sockets).
  162. Latissimus Dorsi
    Broad, flat, superficial muscle covering the back of the neck & upper & middle region of the back;Controls the shoulder blade & the swinging movements of the arm.
  163. Levator Anguli Oris
    Muscle that raises the angle of the mouth & draws it inward.
  164. Levator Labii Superioris
    Muscle surrounding the upper lip;Elevates the upper lip & dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste.
  165. Lungs
    Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide during one respiratory cycle.
  166. Lymph
    Clear, yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces (lymphatic) of the body;Caries waste & impurities away from the cells.
  167. Lymph Capillaries
    Lymphatic vessels that occur in clusters & are distributed throughout most of the body.
  168. Lymph Nodes
    Glandlike bodies in the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph products.
  169. Lymphatic or Immune System
    Body system made up of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, & lymph vessels. Functions protect the body from disease by developing immunities & destroying disease-causing microorganisms as well as draining the tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids to the blood. It carries waste & impurities away from the cells.
  170. Mandible
    Lower jawbone;Largest & strongest bone of the face.
  171. Mandibular Nerve
    Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles & skin of the lower part of the face;Also, nerve that affects the muscles of the chin & lower lip.
  172. Masseter
    One of the muscles of the jaw used in mastication (chewing).
  173. Maxillary Bones
    Form the upper jaw.
  174. Maxillary Nerve
    Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.
  175. Median Nerve
    Nerve, smaller than the ulnar & radial nerves, that supplies the arm & hand.
  176. Melasma
    A condition of the skin that is triggered by hormones;Causes darker pigmentation in areas such as on the upper lip & around the eyes & cheeks.
  177. Mental Nerve
    Nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip & chin.
  178. Mentalis
    Muscle that elevates the lower lip & raises & wrinkles the skin of the chin.
  179. Metabolism
    Chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished & carry out their activities.
  180. Metacarpus
    Bones of the palm of the hand;Parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus & phalanges.
  181. Middle Temporal Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the temples.
  182. Mitosis
    Cells dividing into two new cells (daughter cells);The usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues.
  183. Motor (Efferent) Nerves
    Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
  184. Muscular System
    Body system that covers, shapes, & supports the skeleton tissue;Contracts & moves various parts of the body.
  185. Muscular Tissue
    Tissue that contracts & moves various parts of the body.
  186. Nasal Bones
    Bones that form the bridge of the nose.
  187. Nasal Nerve
    Nerve that affects the point & lower sides of the nose.
  188. Nerve Tissue
    Tissue that controls & coordinates all body function.
  189. Nerves
    Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.
  190. Nervous System
    Body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, & nerves;Controls & coordinates all other systems & makes them work harmoniously & efficiently.
  191. Neuron
    Nerve cell;Basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of a cell body, nucleus, dendrites, & axon.
  192. Nonstriated Muscles
    Also called involuntary, visceral, or smooth muscles;Muscles that function automatically, without conscious will.
  193. Nucleoplasm
    A fluid within the nucleus of the cell that contains proteins & DNA;Determines our genetic makeup.
  194. Nucleus
    Dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell;Plays an important part in cell reproduction & metabolism.
  195. Occipital Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the skin & muscles of the scalp & back of the head up to the crown.
  196. Occipital Bone
    Hindmost bone of the skull, located below the parietal bones.
  197. Occipitalis
    Back of the epicranius;Muscle that draws the scalp backward.
  198. Ophthalmic Nerve
    Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, & interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, & nasal passage.
  199. Orbicularis Oculi
    The rung muscle of the eye socket;Closes the eyelid.
  200. Orbicularis Oris
    Flat bank around the upper & lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers & wrinkles the lips.
  201. Organs
    Structures composed of the specialized tissues & performing specific functions.
  202. Origin
    Part of the muscle that does not move;It is attached to the skeleton & is usually part of a skeletal muscle.
  203. Palatine Bones
    The two bones that form the hard palate of the mouth.
  204. Parasympathetic Division
    As part of the autonomic nervous system, it operates under normal nonstressful situations, such as resting. It also helps to restore calm & balance to the body after a stressful event.
  205. Parietal Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the side & crown of the head.
  206. Parietal Bones
    Bones that form the sides & top of the cranium.
  207. Pectoralis Major & Minor
    Muscles of the chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.
  208. Pericardium
    Double-layered membranous sac enclosing the heart.
  209. Peripheral Nervious System
    System of nerves & ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system;Has both sensory & motor nerves.
  210. Peristalsis
    Moving food along the digestive tract.
  211. Phalanges
    Bones of the fingers or toes(singular: phalanx).
  212. Physiology
    Study of the functions or activities performed by the body’s structures.
  213. Plasma
    Fluid part of the blood & lymph that carries food & secretions to the cells & carbon dioxide from the cells.
  214. Platelets
    Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots.
  215. Platysma
    Broad muscle extending from the chest & shoulder muscles to the side of the chin;Responsible for depressing the lower jaw & lip.
  216. Posterior Auricular Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the scalp, behind & above the ear.
  217. Posaterior Auricular Nerve
    Nerve that affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.
  218. Procerus
    Muscle that covers the bridge of the nose, depresses, the eyebrows, & causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.
  219. Pronators
    Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.
  220. Protoplasm
    Colorless, jellylike substance in cells;Contains food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, & water.
  221. Pulmondary Circulation
    Process of blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified.
  222. Radial Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the arm & the back of the hand.
  223. Radial Nerve
    Nerve that, with its branches, supplies the thumb side of the arm & back of the hand.
  224. Radius
    Smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb.
  225. Red Blood Cells
    Also called red corpuscles;Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
  226. Reflex
    Automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus; Involves the movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the afferent nerve to the spinal cord, & a responsive impulse along an efferent neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.
  227. Reproductive System
    Body system responsible for processes by which plants & animals produce offspring.
  228. Respiratory System
    Body system consisting of the lungs & air passages;Enables breathing, which supplies the body with oxygen & eliminates carbon dioxide as a waste product.
  229. Risorius
    Muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out & back, as in grinning.
  230. Scapula
    One of a pair of shoulder blades;Large, flat triangular bone of the shoulder.
  231. Sensory (Afferent) Nerves
    Nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, & pressure are experienced.
  232. Serratus Anterior
    Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing & in raising the arm.
  233. Seventh (Facial) Cranial Nerve
    Chief motor nerve of the face, emerging near the lower part of the ear.
  234. Skeletal System
    Physical foundation of the body, composed of the bones & moveable & immovable joints.
  235. Smaller (Lesser) Occipital Nerve
    Nerve located at the base of the skull, affecting the scalp & muscles behind the ear.
  236. Sphenoid Bone
    Bone that joins all the bones of the cranium together.
  237. Spinal Cord
    Portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, & is protected by the spinal column.
  238. Sternocleidomastoideus
    Muscle of the neck that depresses & rotates the head.
  239. Sternum
    The flat bone, or breastbone, that forms the ventral support of the ribs.
  240. Striated Muscles
    Also called voluntary or skeletal muscles;Muscles that are controlled by the will.
  241. Submental Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the chin & lower lip.
  242. Superficial Temporal Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side & top of the head.
  243. Superior Liabial Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the upper lip & region of the nose.
  244. Supinator
    Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward & the palm upward.
  245. Supraorbital Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the upper eyelid & forehead.
  246. Supraorbital Nerve
    Nerve that affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, & upper eyelid.
  247. Supratrochlear Nerve
    Nerve that affects the skin between the eyes & upper side of the nose.
  248. Sympathetic Division
    Part of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates or speeds up activity & prepares the body for stressful situations, such as in running from a dangerous situation, or competing in a sports event.
  249. Systemic (General) Circulation
    Circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body & back again to the heart;Also called general circulation.
  250. Temporal Bones
    Bones forming the sides of the head in the ear region.
  251. Temporal Nerve
    Nerve affecting the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, & upper part of the cheek.
  252. Temporalis
    Temporal muscle;One of the muscles involved in mastication (chewing).
  253. Thorax
    The chest;Elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, & other internal organs.
  254. Tissue
    Collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.
  255. Transverse Facial Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the skin & the masseter.
  256. Trapezius
    Muscle that covers the back of the neck & upper & middle region of the back;Stabilizes the scapula & shrugs the shoulders.
  257. Triangularis
    Muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth.
  258. Triceps
    Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm & extends the forearm.
  259. Turbinal Bones
    Thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression.
  260. Ulna
    Inner & larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist on the side of the little finger.
  261. Ulnar Artery
    Artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little-finger side of the arm & palm of the hand.
  262. Ulnar Nerve
    Nerve that affects the little-finger side of the arm & palm of the hand.
  263. Valves
    Structures that temporarily close a passage or permit flow in one direction only.
  264. Vascular System
    Body system consisting of the heart, arteries, veins, & capillaries for the distribution of blood throughout the body.
  265. Veins
    Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries;They contain cuplike valves to prevent backflow & carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart & lungs.
  266. Ventricle
    The lower thick-walled chamber of the heart.
  267. Vomer
    A flat, thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.
  268. White Blood Cells
    Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing germs; Also called white corpuscles or leukocytes.
  269. Zygomatic or Malar Bones
    Bones that form the prominence of the cheeks;The cheekbones.
  270. Zygomatic Nerve
    Nerve that affects the skin of the temple, side of the forehead, & upper part of the cheek.
  271. Zygomaticus Major & Minor
    Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth;They elevate the lip, as in laughing.
  272. Acid-Alkali Neutralization Reactions
    When an acid is mixed with an alkali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other & form water (H20) & a salt.
  273. Acid Mantle
    Protective lipids & secretions on top of the skin.
  274. Acids
    Substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, & turn litmus paper from blue to red.
  275. Air
    The gaseous mixture that makes up the earth’s atmosphere. It is odorless, colorless, & generally consists of about 1 part oxygen & 4 parts nitrogen by volume.
  276. Alkalies
    Also called bases;Have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter, & turn litmus paper from red to blue.
  277. Antioxidants
    Free radical scavengers, vitamins, & ingredients. Antioxidants also inhibit oxidation. They are used both to help the condition of the skin & to stop the oxidation that causes products to turn rancid & spoil.
  278. Atoms
    The smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element.
  279. Chemical Change
    Change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed that have properties different from the original.
  280. Chemical Compounds
    Combinations of two or more atoms of different elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, & distinct properties.
  281. Chemical Properties
    Those characteristics that can be determined only with a chemical reaction & that cause a chemical reaction & that cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
  282. Chemistry
    Science that deals with the composition, structures, & properties of matter & with how matter changes under different conditions.
  283. Combustion
    Rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat & light.
  284. Compound Molecules
    Chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements.
  285. Element
    The simplest form of matter;Cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of identity.
  286. Elemental Molecules
    Chemical combinations of two or more atoms of the same element.
  287. Emulsions
    An unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier.
  288. Free Radicals
    “Super” oxidizers that cause an oxidation reaction & produce a new free radical in the process;Are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules (often oxygen) having an unpaired number of electrons. Free radicals are unstable & can damage DNA, causing inflammation & disease in the body.
  289. Hydrogen
    Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas;The lightest element known.
  290. Hydrogen Peroxide
    Chemical compound of hydrogen & oxygen;A colorless liquid with a characteristic odor & a slightly acid taste.
  291. Hydrophilic
    Capable of combining with or attracting water.
  292. Immiscible
    Not capable of being mixed.
  293. Inorganic Chemistry
    Branch of chemistry dealing with elements that do not contain carbon.
  294. Lipophilic
    Having an affinity or attraction to fat & oils.
  295. Logarithmic Scale
    A method of displaying data in multiples of 10.
  296. Matter
    Any substance that occupies space & has mass (weight).
  297. Miscible
    Capable of being mixed with another liquid in any proportion without separating.
  298. Molecule
    A chemical combination of two or more atoms.
  299. Nitrogen
    Colorless, gaseous element that makes up four-fifths of the air in the atmosphere.
  300. Oil-In-Water (O/W) Emulsion
    Oil droplets dispersed in water with the aid of an emulsifying agent.
  301. Organic Chemistry
    Study of substances that contain carbon.
  302. Oxidation
    Chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
  303. Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
    • One of the most common types of chemical reactions;
    • Prevalent in all areas of chemistry. When oxygen is added to a substance, the substance is oxidized;For example, rust forms when oxygen is added to iron.
  304. Oxidize
    To combine or cause a substance to combine with oxygen.
  305. Oxygen
    The most abundant element on earth.
  306. pH
    Relative degree of acidity & alkalinity of a substance.
  307. Physical Change
    Change in the form or physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance.
  308. Physical Mixture
    Combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed composition & in any proportions.
  309. Physical Properties
    Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction & that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance.
  310. Redox
    Acronym for Reduction-Oxidation;Chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced & the reducing agent is oxidized.
  311. Redox Reactions
    Oxidation & reduction happening at the same time.
  312. Reduction
    The loss of oxygen from a substance.
  313. Solute
    A substance that is dissolved by a solvent to form a solution.
  314. Solutions
    A uniform mixture of two or more mutually miscible substances.
  315. Solvent
    A substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution.
  316. Surfactants
    • Surface active agents that reduce surface tension between the skin & the product to increase product spreadability;
    • Also allow oil & water to mix;Detergents & emulsifiers.
  317. Suspensions
    State in which solid particles are distributed throughout a liquid medium.
  318. Water
    Most abundant of all substances, comprising about 75% of the earth’s surface & about 65% of the human body.
  319. Water-In-Oil (W/O) Emulsion
    Droplets of water dispersed in an oil.
  320. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    The substance that provides energy to cells & converts oxygen to carbon dioxide, a waste product we breathe out.
  321. Amino Acid
    Organic acids that form the building blocks of protein.
  322. Arteriosclerosis
    Clogging & hardening of the arteries.
  323. Bioflavonoids
    • Biologically active flavonoids;
    • Also called vitamin P;Considered an aid to healthy skin & found most abundantly in citrus fruits.
  324. B Vitamins
    These water-soluble vitamins interact with other water-soluble vitamins & act as coenzymes (catalysts) by facilitating enzymatic reactions. B vitamins include niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, pyridoxine, folacin, biotin, cobalamine, & pantothenic acid.
  325. Calories
    A measure of heat units;Measures food energy for the body.
  326. Carbohydrates
    Compounds that break down the basic chemical sugars & supply energy for the body.
  327. Complementary Foods
    Combinations of two incomplete foods;Complementary proteins eaten together provide all the essential amino acids & make a complete protein.
  328. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    The blueprint material of genetic information;Contains all the information that controls the function of every living cell.
  329. Disaccharides
    Sugars made up of two simple sugars such as lactose & sucrose.
  330. Enzymes
    Catalysts that break down complex food molecules to utilize extracted energy.
  331. Fats (Lipids)
    Macronutrients used to produce energy in the body;The materials in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.
  332. Glycosaminoglycans
    A water-binding substance between the fibers of the dermis.
  333. Hypoglycemia
    A condition in which blood glucose or blood sugar drops too low;Caused by either too much insulin or low food intake.
  334. Linoleic Acid
    Omega 6, an essential fatty acid used to make important hormones;Also part of the skin’s lipid barrier.
  335. Macronutrients
    Nutrients that make up the largest part of the nutrition we take in;Three basic food groups: protein, carbohydrates, & fats.
  336. Micronutrients
    Vitamins & substances that have no calories or nutritional value, yet are essential for body functions.
  337. Minerals
    Inorganic materials required for many reactions of the cells & body.
  338. Monosaccharides
    Carbohydrates made up of one basic sugar unit.
  339. Mucopolysaccharides
    Carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are also good water binders.
  340. Nonessential Amino Acids
    Amino acids that can be synthesized by the body & do not have to be obtained from the diet.
  341. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    Alphalinolenic acid;A type of “good” polyunsaturated fat that may decrease cardiovascular diseases. It is also an anti-inflammatory & beneficial fro skin.
  342. Osteoporosis
    A thinning of bones, leaving them fragile & prone to fractures;Caused by the reabsorption of calcium into the blood.
  343. Polysaccharides
    Carbohydrates that contain three or more simple carbohydrate molecules.
  344. Proteins
    Chains of amino acid molecules used in all cell functions & body growth.
  345. Retinoic Acid (Retin-A)
    A vitamin A derivative. It has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis & is used to treat acne & visible signs of aging. Side effects are irritation, photo-sensitivity, skin dryness, redness, & peeling.
  346. Vitamin A (Retinol)
    An antioxidant that aids in the functioning & repair of skin cells.
  347. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
    An antioxidant vitamin needed for proper repair of the skin & tissues.
  348. Vitamin D
    Fat-soluble vitamin sometimes called the “sunshine vitamin” because the skin synthesizes vitamin D from cholesterol when exposed to sunlight. Essential for growth & development.
  349. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
    Primarily an antioxidant;Helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun’s rays.
  350. Vitamin K
    Vitamin responsible for the synthesis of factors necessary for blood coagulation.
  351. Advertising
    Promotional efforts that are paid for & are directly intended to increase business.
  352. Client Record Keeping
    A method of taking personal notes that helps the esthetician to remember important data & serve client needs better.
  353. Closing Consultation
    An opportunity at the end of a treatment session to review product recommendations, prepare a home-care program for the client to follow, & produce any additional literature on other treatment options that the client may be interested in.
  354. Consultative Selling
    A method of advising or consulting to clients & recommending the best treatments & products for their use.
  355. Marketing
    A strategy for how goods & services are bought, sold, or exchanged.
  356. Promotion
    The process of getting the consumer’s attention, with the goal of increasing business.
  357. Questionnaire
    Form that provides the esthetician with a complete client profile, including important information about a client’s skin care habits & health.
  358. Quota
    A method for gauging the amount of sales & targeting production levels.
  359. Retailing
    The act of recommending & selling products to clients for at-home use.
  360. Upselling Services
    The practice of recommending or selling additional services to clients that may be performed by you or other practitioners in the salon.
  361. Commission
    A method of compensation that is percentage-based & is directly related to the employee’s performance;For example, the employee earns a certain percentage of whatever services he or she performs &/ or a certain percentage of the amount of product he or she sells.
  362. Deductive Reasoning
    The process of reaching logical conclusions by employing logical reasoning.
  363. Franchised Salon or Spa
    A salon or spa owned by an individual(s) who pays a certain fee to use the company name & is part of a larger organization or chain of salons.The franchise operates according to a specified business plan & set protocols.
  364. Information Interview
    A scheduled meeting or conversation whose sole purpose is to gather information.
  365. Job Description
    Specified list of duties & responsibilities that are required of an employee in the performance of his or her job.
  366. Networking
    A method of increasing contacts & building relationships to further one’s career.
  367. Quota
    A method for gauging the amount of sales & targeting production levels.
  368. Resume
    A summary of education & work experience that highlights relevant accomplishments & achievements.
  369. Role Model
    A person whose behavior & success are worthy of emulation.
  370. Salary
    A method of compensation that specifies a certain amount of pay based on either a flat or hourly rate.
  371. Test-Wise
    Refers to a student who begins to prepare for taking a test by practicing good study habits & time management as part of an effective study program.
  372. Transferable Skills
    Those abilities, such as sales training or administrative skills, that were mastered at other jobs & can be applied to a new position.
  373. Band Lashes
    Eyelash hairs on a strip that are applied with adhesive to the natural lash line.
  374. Cake (Pancake) Makeup
    Shaped, solid mass;Heavy coverage.
  375. Complementary Colors
    Primary & secondary colors opposite one another on the color wheel.
  376. Concealers
    Cosmetics used to cover blemishes & discolorations;May be applied before or after foundation.
  377. Cool Colors
    Colors with a blue undertone that suggest coolness & are dominated by blues, greens, violets, & blue-reds.
  378. Eye Tabbing
    Procedure in which individual synthetic eyelashes are attached directly to a client’s own lashes at their base.
  379. Greasepaint
    Heavy makeup used for theatrical purposes.
  380. Individual Lashes
    Separate artificial eyelashes that are applied on top of the lashes one at a time.
  381. Matte
    Dull;Not shiny.
  382. Primary Colors
    Yellow, red, & blue;Fundamental colors that cannot be obtained from a mixture.
  383. Secondary Colors
    Colors obtained by mixing equal parts of two primary colors.
  384. Tertiary Colors
    Colors formed by mixing equal amounts of secondary co.lor & its neighboring primary color.
  385. Warm Colors
    The range of colors with yellow undertones;From yellow & gold through oranges, red-oranges, most reds, & even some yellow-greens.
  386. Anaphoresis
    Process of desincrustation or forcing negative liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole;An alkaline, stimulating reaction.
  387. Cataphoresis
    Process of forcing positive, acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole, Tightens & calms the skin.
  388. Desincrustation
    Galvanic current is used to create an alkaline chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum & debris.
  389. Electrotherapy
    The use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits.
  390. Galvanic Current
    A constant & direct current, it uses a positive & negative pole to produce chemical reactions, (desincrustation) & ionic reactions (iontophoresis).
  391. High-Frequency Machine
    Apparatus that utilizes alternating or sinusoidal current to produce a mild to strong heat effect.High frequency is a Tesla current, sometimes called the violet ray.
  392. Ion
    An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
  393. Ionization
    The separating of a substance into ions.
  394. Iontophoresis
    Process of introducing ions of water-soluble products into the skin by using an electric current such as the positive & negative poles of a galvanic machine.
  395. Lucas Sprayer
    Atomizer designed to apply plant extracts & other ingredients to the skin.
  396. Rotary Brush
    Machine used to lightly exfoliate & stimulate the skin;Also helps soften excess oil, dirt, & cell buildup.
  397. Saponification
    Chemical reaction during desincrustation where the current transforms the sebum into soap.
  398. Sinusoidal Current
    Alternating current similar to faradic current;Produces mechanical contractions & is used during scalp & facial manipulations.
  399. Spray Machine
    Spray misting device.
  400. Thermolysis
    A heat effect;Used for permanent hair removal.
  401. Vacuum (Suction) Machine
    Device that vacuums/suctions the skin to remove impurities & stimulate circulation.
  402. Wood’s Lamp
    Filtered black light that is used to illuminate skin disorders, fungi, bacterial disorders, & pigmentation.
  403. Dr. Jacquet Movement
    Beneficial for oily skin;It helps move sebum out of the follicles & up to the skin’s surface by kneading.
  404. Effleurage
    A soft, continuous stroking movement applied with the fingers & palms in a slow & rhythmic manner.
  405. Friction
    • A rubbing movement;
    • Pressure is maintained on the skin to create friction.Chucking, rolling, & wringing are variations of friction.
  406. Fulling
    A form of petrissage in which the tissue is grasped, gently lifted, & spread out.
  407. Manual Lymph Drainage
    Stimulates lymph fluid to flow through the lymphatic vessels.This light massage technique helps to cleanse & detoxify the body.
  408. Massage
    A manual or mechanical manipulation by rubbing, kneading, or other methods that stimulate metabolism & circulation.
  409. Petrissage
    A kneading movement that stimulates the underlying tissues.
  410. Reflexology
    Treatment of the body through reflex points located on the bottom of the feet.
  411. Shiatsu
    A form of acupressure.
  412. Tapotement
    Fast tapping, slapping, & hacking movements.
  413. Vibration
    A rapid shaking movement in which the technician uses the body & shoulders, not just the fingertips, to create the movement.
  414. Dispensary
    A room used for mixing products & storing supplies.
  415. Ergonomically Correct
    Furniture & body positions healthy for the body & spine.
  416. Ergonomics
    The study of adapting work conditions to suit the worker.
  417. Implements
    Tools used by estheticians.
  418. Sanitary Maintenance Area (SMA)
    An area kept clean for setup of procedure implements & supplies;For example, an SMA can be a towel (paper or cloth) on the workstation.
  419. Sanitizer
    An ultraviolet (UV), wet, or dry sanitizer is used for disinfecting tools & equipment.An autoclave is a sterilizer.
  420. Sharps Container
    Plastic biohazard containers for disposable needles & anything sharp. The container is red & puncture-proof & must be disposed of as medical waste.
  421. Actinic
    Damage or condition caused by sun exposure.
  422. AHAs (Alpha Hydroxy Acids)
    Acids used to exfoliate the skin.
  423. Alipidic
    Lack of oil.
  424. Antioxidants
    Free radical scavengers, vitamins, & ingredients.
  425. Contraindications
    A factor that prohibits a treatment due to a condition;Treatments could cause harmful or negative side effects to those who have specific medical or skin conditions.
  426. Couperose Skin
    Redness;Distended capillaries from weakening of the capillary walls.
  427. Dehydration
    Lack of water.
  428. Fitzpatrick Scale
    A scale used to measure the skin type’s ability to tolerate sun exposure.
  429. Keratoses
    Abnormally thick build-ups of cells.
  430. Melanosome
    Pigment granules of melanocyte cells that produce melanin in the basal layer.
  431. Occlusive
    Products that reduce Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) to help hold in moisture & protect the skin’s top barrier layer.
  432. Peptides
    Chains of amino acids;Used to treat wrinkles & elasticity.
  433. Skin Types
    Classification that describes a person’s genetic skin type.
  434. T-zone
    The center area of the face;Corresponds to the “T” shape formed by the forehead, nose, & chin.
  435. Booth Rental
    An arrangement in which the esthetician is required to pay the owner a set rental fee, along with payment of utilities as agreed upon, to operate in a specific space within the owner’s establishment.
  436. Business Plan
    A strategy for understanding key elements in developing business;Also serves as a guide to making informed business decisions.
  437. Capital
    The money needed to start a business.
  438. Consumption Supplies
    Items used to conduct daily business operations.
  439. Corporation
    Form of business ownership whereby one or more stockholders share ownership;The corporation is considered an independent legal entity separate & distinct from its owners with its own rights, privileges, & liabilities.
  440. Demographics
    • The particular identifying characteristics of an area or population, such as the specific size, age, sex, or ethnicity of its residents;
    • Average income;& buying habits.
  441. Employee Manual
    A handbook or guide for employees;Contains important general information about salon operations, such as the number of sick days or vacation time allowed, holiday closings, how to call in late or sick, & the appropriate dress code for estheticians.
  442. Fixed Costs
    Those operating costs that are constant, for example, rent & loan payments.
  443. Job Descriptions
    Specified list of duties & responsibilities that are required of an employee in the performance of his or her job.
  444. Partnership
    • Form of business ownership in which two or more people share ownership, although this does not necessarily mean an equal arrangement.
    • In a partnership, each partner assumes the other’s unlimited liability for debt.Profits are shared among partners.
  445. Personnel
  446. Procedural Guide
    Manual or set of instructions designed to standardize operations;Supplies specific protocols for conducting individual services, such as the expected method for performing a glycolic or microdermabrasion treatment.
  447. Profit
    Amount of money available after all expenses are subtracted from all revenues.
  448. Public Relations (PR)
    The planning & developing of relationships to achieve a certain desired behavior.
  449. Retail Supplies
    Items Available for sale to clients.
  450. Revenue
    Income generated from selling services & products, or money taken in.
  451. Sole Proprietorship
    Form of business ownership in which an individual acts as sole owner & manager & is responsible for determining all policies & making all of the necessary decisions associated with running a business.
  452. Variable Costs
    Business expenses that fluctuate, such as utilities, supplies, & advertising.
  453. Abdominoplasty
    Procedure that removes excessive fat deposits & loose skin from the abdomen to tuck & tighten the area.
  454. Ayurvedic
    Indian philosophy of balancing life & the body through various methods ranging from massage to eating habits.It is based on three doshas, or mind & body types.
  455. Balneotherapy
    Body treatments that use mud or fango, dead sea salt, seaweed, enzymes, or peat baths.
  456. Blepharoplasty
    An eye lift.It removes the fat & skin from the upper & lower lids.
  457. Body Masks
    Remineralize & detoxify the body using clay, mud, gel, or seaweed mixtures.
  458. Body Scrubs
    Use of friction to exfoliate, hydrate, increase circulation, & nourish the skin.
  459. Body Wraps
    Remineralize, hydrate, stimulate, or promote relaxation by using aloe, gels, lotions, oils, seaweed, herbs, clay, or mud.
  460. Botox
    Neuromuscular-blocking serum (botulinum toxin) that paralyzes nerve cells on the muscle when this serum is injected into it.
  461. Cell Renewal Factor (CRF)
    Cell turnover rate.
  462. Cellulite
    Gel-like lumps of fat, water, & residues of toxic substances beneath the skin, usually around the hips & thighs of overweight people.
  463. Cosmetic (Esthetic) Surgery
    Elective surgery for improving & altering the appearance.
  464. Dermabrasion
    A medical procedure;Strong exfoliation method using a mechanical brush to physically remove tissue down to the dermis.
  465. Dermal Fillers
    Products used to fill lines, wrinkles, & other facial imperfections.
  466. Endermology
    A treatment for cellulite.
  467. Foot Reflexology
    Treatment of the body through reflex points located on the bottom of the feet.
  468. Hydrotherapy
    Spa treatments that use water.
  469. Injectable Fillers
    Substances used in nonsurgical procedures to fill in or plump up areas of the skin.Botox & dermal fillers are injectables.
  470. Jessner’s Peel
    A light to medium peel of lactic acid, salicylic acid, & resorcinol in an ethanol solvent.
  471. Laser Resurfacing
    Procedure used to smooth wrinkles or lighten acne scars.Collagen remodeling stimulates the growth of new collagen in the dermis.
  472. Lasers
    Acronym for “light amplification stimulation emission of radiation:;Medical devices using electromagnetic radiation for hair removal & skin treatments.
  473. Light Therapy
    The application of light rays to the skin for the treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal.
  474. Liposuction
    Procedure that surgically removes pockets of fat.
  475. Mammoplasty
    Breast surgery.
  476. Manual Lymph Drainage (MLD)
    Stimulates lymph fluid to flow through the lymphatic vessels.This light massage technique helps to cleanse & detoxify the body.
  477. Microcurrent
    A device that mimics the body’s natural electrical energy to reeducate & tone facial muscles;Improves circulation & increases collagen & elastin production.
  478. Microdermabrasion
    A form of mechanical exfoliation.
  479. Nonablative
    Procedure that does not remove tissue;Wrinkle treatments that bypass the epidermis to stimulate collagen in the dermis for wrinkle reduction are nonablative.
  480. Phenol
    • Carbolic acid;
    • A caustic poison;Used for peels & to sanitize metallic implements.
  481. Reconstructive Surgery
    Defined as “restoring a bodily function.”It is necessary surgery for accident survivors & those with congenital disfigurements or other diseases.
  482. Rhinoplasty
    Nose surgery that makes a nose smaller or changes its appearance.
  483. Rhytidectomy
    A face lift.This removes excess fat at the jawline, tightens loose, atrophic muscles, & removes sagging skin.
  484. Sclerotherapy
    Minimizes varicose veins (dilated blood vessels) & other varicosities by injecting chemical agents into the affected areas or by laser treatments.
  485. Stone Massage
    The use of hot stones & cold stones in massage or in other treatments.
  486. Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty
    Procedure performed inside the lower eyelid to remove bulging fat pads, which are often congenital.
  487. Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) Peels
    A strong peel used to diminish sun damage & wrinkles.
  488. Anagen
    First stage of hair growth, during which new hair is produced.
  489. Arrector Pili Muscle
    Located in the hair follicle;When it contracts, the hair stands straight up, causing goose bumps.
  490. Barbae Folliculitis
    • Infected inflammation of the hair follicle;
    • Ingrown hairs due to shaving.Pseudofolliculitis is inflammation of hair follicles without the infection.
  491. Catagen
    Second transition stage of hair growth;In the catagen stage, the hair shaft grows upward & detaches itself from the bulb.
  492. Depilation
    The process of removing hair at skin level.
  493. Depilatory
    Substance, usually a caustic alkali preparation, used for temporarily removing superfluous hair by dissolving it at the skin level.
  494. Electrolysis
    Removal of hair by means of an electric current that destroys the hair root.
  495. Epilation
    Removes hairs from the follicles;Waxing or tweezing.
  496. Hair Bulb
    The swelling at the base of the follicle that provides the hair with nourishment;It is a thick, club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root.
  497. Hair Follicle
    The tubular shield that surrounds the hair shaft;The “pore” where hairs grow.
  498. Hair Papillae (singular: Papilla)
    Cone-shaped elevations at the base of the follicle that fits into the bulb.The papillae are filled with tissue that contains the blood vessels & cells necessary for hair growth & follicle nourishment.
  499. Hair Root
    Part of the hair that lies within the follicle at its base, where the hair grows.
  500. Hair Shaft
    Portion of the hair that extends or projects beyond the skin, consisting of the outer layer (cuticle), inner layer (medulla), & middle layer (cortex).Color changes happen in the cortex.
  501. Hirsutism
    Growth of an unusual amount of hair on parts of the body normally bearing only downy hair, such as the face, arms & legs of women or the backs of men.
  502. Hypertrichosis
    Excessive hair growth where hair does not normally grow.
  503. Intense Pulsed Light (IPL)
    A photoepilation hair-reduction method using flashes of light & different wavelengths;An intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation.
  504. Lanugo
    The hair on a fetus;Soft & downy hair covering most of the body.
  505. Laser Hair Removal
    A photoepilation hair reduction treatment in which a laser beam is pulsed on the skin using one wavelength at a time, impairing hair growth;An intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation.
  506. Photoepilation
    Hair reduction methods using lasers & intense pulsed light (IPL).
  507. Sugaring
    An ancient method of hair removal, dating back to the Egyptians.The original recipe is a mixture of sugar, lemon juice, & water that is heated to form syrup, molded into a ball & pressed onto the skin, & the quickly stripped away.
  508. Telogen
    Final hair-growth stage, the resting stage.
  509. Thermolysis
    A heat effect;Used for permanent hair removal.
  510. Trichology
    The scientific study of hair & its diseases.
  511. Vellus Hair
    Very fine, soft, downy hair covering most of the body.
  512. Desincrustation
    Process used to soften & emulsify grease deposits (oil( & blackheads in the hair follicles.
  513. Extractions
    The manual removal of impurities & comedones.
  514. Facial
    A professional service designed to improve & rejuvenate the skin.
  515. Folliculitis
    An infection of the hair follicles characterized by inflammation & pus.
  516. Folliculitis Barbae
    Hair is trapped under the skin, causing a bacterial infection;From improper shaving.
  517. Pseudofolliculitis
    Often referred to as “razor bumps”;Resembles folliculitis without the infection.
  518. Vasoconstricting
    Vascular constriction of capillaries & blood flow.
  519. Acid Mantle
    Protective lipids & secretions on top of the skin.
  520. Adipose (Fat) Tissue
    A protective cushion that gives contour & smoothness to the body.
  521. Apocrine Glands
    Coiled structures attached to hair follicles found in the underarm & genital areas.
  522. Arrector Pili Muscle
    The muscle that contracts & causes “goose bumps” when we are cold.
  523. Barrier Function
    The protective barrier of the epidermis;The corneum & intercellular cement protect the surface from irritation & dehydration.
  524. Cell Mitosis
    Cell division;Occurs continuously in the basal cell layer.
  525. Ceramides
    Lipid materials that are a natural part of the intercellular cement.
  526. Collagen
    • Fibrous, connective tissue made form protein;
    • Found in the reticular layer of the dermis;
    • Gives skin its firmness.
    • Topically, a large, long-chain molecular protein that lies on the top of the skin & binds water;Derived from the placentas of cows or other sources.
  527. Dermal Papillae
    Membranes of ridges & grooves that attach to the epidermis.
  528. Dermis
    Live layer of connective tissue below the epidermis.
  529. Desmosomes
    The structures that assist in holding cells together.
  530. Eccrine Glands
    Sweat glands found all over the body;Not attached to hair follicles, do not produce an offensive odor.
  531. Elastin
    Protein fiber found in the dermis;Gives skin its elasticity & firmness.
  532. Epidermis
    The outermost layer of skin;A thin, protective layer with many nerve endings.
  533. Fibroblasts
    Cells that produce amino acids & collagen.
  534. Follicles
    Hair follicles & sebaceous follicles are tubelike depressions in the epidermis.
  535. Free Radicals
    Oxygen atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons that cause oxidation.They steal electrons from other molecules, which damages the other molecules.
  536. Hair Papillae
    Cone-shaped elevations at the base of the follicle that fits into the bulb.The papillae are filled with tissue that contains the blood vessels & cells necessary for hair growth & follicle nourishment.
  537. Histology
    Study of the structure & composition of tissue.
  538. Hormones
    Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands & carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body or a body organ to stimulate functional activity or secretion;The internal messengers for most of the body’s systems.
  539. Hyaluronic Acid
    Hydrating fluids found in the skin;Hydrophilic agent with water-binding properties.
  540. Integumentary System
    The skin & its extensions, such as the hair, nails, & glands.
  541. Intercellular Cement
    Lipid substances between corneum cells that protect the cells from water loss & irritation.
  542. Keratin
    Fiber protein found in skin, hair, & nails;Provides resiliency & protection to the skin.
  543. Keratinocytes
    Cells composed of keratin.
  544. Lipids
    Fats or fatlike substances. Lipids help repair & protect the barrier function of the skin.
  545. Lymph Vessels
    Located in the dermis, these supply nourishment within the skin & remove waste.
  546. Melanin
    Skin pigment;A defense mechanism to protect skin from the sun.
  547. Melanocytes
    Cells that produce pigment granules in the basal layer.
  548. Papillary Layer
    The top layer of the dermis next to the epidermis.
  549. Physiology
    Study of the functions or activities performed by the body’s structures.
  550. Pores
    A tubelike opening for sweat glands on the epidermis.
  551. Reticular Layer
    The deeper layer of the dermis, containing proteins that give the skin its strength & elasticity.
  552. Sebaceous Glands
    Sebaceous glands are connected to the hair follicles in the reticular layer;These produce sebum, which protects the surface of the skin.
  553. Sebum
    Provides protection for the epidermis from external factors & lubricates both the skin & hair.
  554. Stratum Corneum
    Outermost layer of the epidermis;Also called the horny layer.
  555. Stratum Germinativum
    First layer of the epidermis above the papillary layer of the dermis;Also known as the basal layer.
  556. Stratum Granulosum
    Layer of the epidermis composed of cells filled with keratin that resemble granules;Replace cells shed from the stratum corneum.
  557. Stratum Lucidum
    Clear layer of epidermis under the stratum corneum;Found only on the palms of hands & soles of feet.
  558. Stratum Spinosum
    Spiny layer of epidermis above the basal layer.
  559. Subcutaneous Layer
    Subcutaneous adipose tissue located beneath the dermis.
  560. Subcutis Tissue
    Subcutaneous tissue located beneath the dermis.
  561. Sudoriferous or Sweat Glands
    Excrete perspiration & detoxify the body by excreting excess salt & unwanted chemicals.
  562. Telangiectasia
    Describes capillaries that have been damaged & are now larger, or distended blood vessels.Commonly called couperose skin.
  563. Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL)
    Water loss caused by evaporation on the skin’s surface.
  564. UVA Rays
    Longer, aging rays that penetrate deeper into the skin than UVB rays.
  565. UVB Rays
    Shorter, burning rays that are stronger than UVA rays.
  566. Active Electrode
    Electrode used on the area to be treated.
  567. Alternating Current (AC)
    Rapid & interrupted current, flowing first in one direction & then in the opposite direction.
  568. Amp (A)
    Unit that measures the amount of an electric current (quantity of electrons flowing through a conductor).
  569. Anaphoresis
    Process of forcing liquids into the tissues from the negative toward the positive pole.
  570. Anode
    Positive electrode.
  571. Blue Light
    Therapeutic light that should be used only on oily skin that is bare; contains few heat rays, is the least penetrating, & has some germicidal & chemical benefits.
  572. Cataphoresis
    Process of forcing acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive toward the negative pole.
  573. Cathode
    Negative electrode.
  574. Circuit Breaker
    Switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of overload.
  575. Complete Circuit
    The path of an electric current from the generating source through conductors & back to its original source.
  576. Conductor
    Any substance, material, or medium that easily transmits electricity.
  577. Converter
    Apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current.
  578. Desincrustation
    Galvanic current is used to create an alkaline chemical reaction that emulsifies or liquefies sebum & debris.
  579. Direct Current (DC)
    Constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only.
  580. Electric Current
    Flow of electricity along a conductor.
  581. Electricity
    Form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits, magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects;A flow of electrons.
  582. Electrode
    Applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the client’s skin.
  583. Electromagnetic Radiation
    Energy in the form of electromagnetic waves;Also called radiant energy because it carries, or radiates, energy through space on waves.
  584. Electrotherapy
    The use of electrical devices for therapeutic benefits.
  585. Faradic Current
    Alternating & interrupted current that produces a mechanical reaction without a chemical effect.
  586. Fuse
    Special device that prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit.
  587. Galvanic Current
    A constant & direct current (DC);Uses a positive & negative pole to produce the chemical changes of desincrustation, an iontophoresis.
  588. Inactive Electrode
    Opposite pole from the active electrode.
  589. Infrared Rays
    Invisible rays that have longer wavelengths, penetrate deeper, & produce more heat than visible light does.
  590. Insulator (Nonconductor)
    Substance that does not easily transmit electricity.
  591. Iontophoresis (Ionization)
    Process of introducing water-soluble products into the skin by using electric current such as that from the positive & negative poles of a galvanic machine.
  592. Kilowatt (K)
    1,000 watts.
  593. Laser
    Acronym for light amplification stimulation emission of radiation;A medical device used for hair removal & skin treatments.
  594. Light Therapy
    The application of light rays to the skin for the treatment of acne, wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal.
  595. Microcurrent
    A device that mimics the body’s natural electrical energy to reeducate & tone facial muscles;Improves circulation & increases collagen & elastin production.
  596. Milliampere
    One-thousandth of an ampere.
  597. Modalities
    Currents used in electrical facial & scalp treatments.
  598. Ohm (O)
    Unit that measures the resistance of an electric current.
  599. Phototherapy
    Phototherapy (light therapy(, is a form of treatment used for various skin conditions using artificial light wavelengths from the ultraviolet (flue light) part of the sun’s spectrum
  600. Photothermolysis
    Process by which light from a laser is turned into heat.
  601. Plug
    Tow- or three-prong connector at the end of an electrical cord that connects an apparatus to an electrical outlet.
  602. Polarity
    Negative or positive pole of an electric current.
  603. Rectifier
    Apparatus that changes alternating current to direct current.
  604. Red Light
    Therapeutic light used on dry skin in combination with oils & creams;Penetrates the deepest & produces the most heat.
  605. Sinusoidal Current
    Alternating current similar to faradic current;Produces mechanical contractions & is used during scalp & facial manipulations.
  606. Tesla High-Frequency Current
    Thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration;Also called violet ray.
  607. Ultraviolet (UV) Rays
    Invisible rays that have short wavelengths, are the least penetrating rays, produce chemical effects, & kill germs;Also called cold rays or actinic rays.
  608. Visible Light
    The primary source of light used in facial & scalp treatments.
  609. Volt (V)
    Unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes the flow of electrons forward through a conductor.
  610. Watt (W)
    Measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second.
  611. Wavelength
    Distance between two successive peaks of electromagnetic waves.
  612. White Light
    Referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum.
  613. Acne
    A chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands that is characterized by comedones & blemishes; Also know as acne simplex or acne vulgaris.
  614. Acne Excoriee
    A disorder where clients purposely scrape off acne lesions, causing scarring & discoloration.
  615. Actinic Keratoses
    Pink or flesh-colored precancerous lesions that feel sharp or rough, usually as the result of sun damage.
  616. Albinism
    The absence of melanin pigment in the body, including skin, hair & eyes;The technical term for albinism is congenital leukoderma.
  617. Anhidrosis
    A deficiency in perspiration, often a result of a fever or skin disease, that requires medical treatment.
  618. Asteatosis
    Dry, scaly skin from sebum deficiency, which can be due to aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps, or cold exposure.
  619. Atopic Dermatitis
    Dermatitis is genetically related to over-reactive immune systems & is prevalent in people with nasal allergies & asthma.
  620. Bacterial Conjunctivitis
    Pinkeye;Very contagious.
  621. Basal Cell Carcinoma
    The most common & the least severe type of skin cancer, which often appears as light, pearly nodules.
  622. Bromhidrosis
    Foul-smelling perspiration, usually in the armpits or on the feet.
  623. Bulla (plural: Bullae)
    A large blister containing watery fluid;Similar to a vesicle, but larger.
  624. Carbuncle
    A large circumscribed inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci;Similar to a furuncle (foil) but larger.
  625. Chloasma
    Increased pigmentation;Liver spots.
  626. Comedogenic
    A tendency to clog follicles & cause a buildup of dead skin cells, resulting in comedones.
  627. Comedone
    • An open comedo or blackhead;
    • A mass of hardened sebum & skin cells in a hair follicle.
    • When the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, a blackhead forms.
    • It is dark because it is exposed to oxygen Y oxidizes. Closed comedones do not have a follicular opening & are called milia or whiteheads.
  628. Contact Dermatitis
    An inflammatory skin condition caused by contact with a substance or chemical.Occupational disorders from ingredients in cosmetics & chemical solutions can cause contact dermatitis, or dermatitis venenata.
  629. Crust
    Dead cells form over a wound or blemish while it is healing, resulting in an accumulation of sebum & pus, sometimes mixed with epidermal material. An example is the scab on a sore.
  630. Cyst
    A closed, abnormally developed sac containing fluid, infection, or other matter above or below the skin.
  631. Dermatitis
    Any inflammatory condition of the skin. Various forms of lesions, such as eczema, vesicles, or papules.
  632. Dermatologist
    Physician who treats skin disorders & diseases.
  633. Dermatology
    Branch of science that studies & treats the skin & its disorders.
  634. Eczema
    • An inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin, acute or chronic in nature, with dry or moist lesions.
    • This condition should be referred to a physician.Seborrheic dermatitis, mainly affecting oily areas, is a common form of eczema.
  635. Edema
    Swelling caused by a response to injury or infection.
  636. Erythema
    Redness caused by inflammation;A red lesion is erythemic.
  637. Excoriation
    A skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping.
  638. Fissure
    A crack in the skin that penetrates the dermis.Chapped lips or hands are fissures.
  639. Folliculitis
    Inflammation of the hair follicles.
  640. Furuncle
    A subcutaneous abscess filled with pus;Also called boils, furuncles are caused by bacteria in the glands or hair follicles.
  641. Herpes Simplex Virus 1
    • This strain of the herpes virus causes fever blisters or cold sores;
    • It is a recurring, contagious viral infection consisting of a vesicle or group of vesicles on a red, swollen base.The blisters usually appear on the lips or nostrils.
  642. Herpes Simplex Virus 2
    This strain of the herpes virus infects the genitals.
  643. Herpes Zoster
    Shingles, a painful skin condition from the chickenpox virus;Characterized by groups of blisters that form a rash.
  644. Hyperhidrosis
    Excessive perspiration caused by heat or body weakness.Medical treatment is required.
  645. Hyperkeratosis
    A thickening of the skin caused by a mass of keratinized cells (Keratinocytes).
  646. Hyperpigmentation
    Overproduction of pigment.
  647. Hypertrophy
    An abnormal growth;Many are benign, or harmless.
  648. Hypopigmentation
    Lack of pigment.
  649. Impetigo
    A contagious bacterial infection often occurring in children;Characterized by clusters of small blisters.
  650. Keloid
    A thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue (collagen).
  651. Keratinocytes
    Cells composed of keratin.
  652. Keratoma
    An acquired, thickened patch of epidermis.A callus caused by pressure or friction is a keratoma.
  653. Keratoses
    Abnormally thick build-ups of cells.
  654. Keratosis Pilaris
    Redness & bumpiness in the cheeks or upper arms;Caused by blocked follicles.
  655. Lentigo / Lentigenes
    • Freckles;
    • Small yellow-brown colored spots.
    • Lentigenes that result from sunlight exposure are actinic, or solar, lentigenes.Patches are referred to as large macules.
  656. Lesions
    Structural changes in tissues caused by damage or injury.
  657. Leukoderma
    Light, abnormal patches caused by a burn or congenital disease that destroys the pigment-producing cells. Vitiligo & albinism are leukodermas.
  658. Macule
    A flat spot or discoloration on the skin, such as a freckle.Macules are neither raised nor sunken.
  659. Malignant Melanoma
    The most serious form of skin cancer.Black or dark patches on the skin are usually uneven in texture, jagged, or raised.
  660. Melasma
    • Term for hyperpigmentation;
    • Pregnancy mask is often called melasma.This condition is triggered by hormonal changes & may fade with time.
  661. Milia
    Also called whiteheads, milia are whitish, pearl-like masses of sebum & dead cells under the skin.Milia are more common in dry skin types & may form after skin trauma, such as a laser resurfacing.
  662. Miliaria Rubra
    Prickly heat;Acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat glands resulting in the eruption of red vesicles & burning, itching skin from excessive heat exposure.
  663. Mole
    • A brownish spot ranging in color from tan to bluish black.
    • Some are flat, resembling freckles;Others are raised & darker.
  664. Nevus
    A birthmark or mole;Malformation of the skin due to abnormal pigmentation or dilated capillaries.
  665. Nodules
    Also referred to as tumors, but these are smaller bumps caused by conditions such as scar tissue, fatty deposits, or infections.
  666. Papule
    A pimple;Small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus.
  667. Perioral Dermatitis
    An acne-like condition around the mouth.These are mainly small clusters of papules that could be caused by toothpaste or products used on the face.
  668. Primary Lesions
    Primary lesions are characterized by flat, non-palpable changes in skin color such as macules or patches, or an elevation formed by fluid in a cavity, such as vesicles, bullae, or pustules.
  669. Pruitis
    The medical term for itching.
  670. Pseudofolliculitis
    Often referred to as “razor bumps”;Resembles folliculitis without the pus.
  671. Psoriasis
    • A skin disease characterized by red patches covered with white-silver scales.
    • It is caused by an over-proliferation of skin cells that replicate too fast.
    • Immune dysfunction could be the cause.Psoriasis is usually found in patches on the scalp, elbows, knees, chest, & lower back.
  672. Pustule
    An inflamed papule with a white or yellow center containing pus, a fluid consisting of white blood cells, bacteria, & other debris produced from an infection.
  673. Retention Hyperkeratosis
    Hereditary factor in which dead skin cells do not shed form the follicles as they do on normal skin.
  674. Rosacea
    • nflammation of the skin;
    • Chronic congestion primarily on the cheeks & nose.Characterized by redness, dilation of blood vessels, & in severe cases, the formation of papules & pustules.
  675. Scale
    • Flaky skin cells;
    • Any thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily.An example is abnormal or excessive dandruff.
  676. Scar
    • Light-colored, slightly raised mark on the skin formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed up.
    • The tissue hardens to heal the injury.
    • Elevated scars are hypertrophic;A keloid is a hypertrophic (abnormal) scar.
  677. Sebaceous Filaments
    Similar to open comedones, these are mainly solidified impactions of oil without the cell matter.
  678. Sebaceous Hyperplasia
    Benign lesions frequently seen in oilier areas of the face.An overgrowth of the sebaceous gland, they appear similar to open comedones;Often doughnut-shaped, with sebaceous material in the center.
  679. Seborrhea
    Severe oiliness of the skin;An abnormal secretion from the sebaceous glands.
  680. Seborrheic Dermatitis
    A common form of eczema.
  681. Secondary Lesions
    Skin damage, developed in the later stages of disease, that changes the structure of tissues or organs.
  682. Skin Tag
    Small outgrowths or extensions of the skin that look like flaps.They are benign & are common under the arms or on the neck.
  683. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    More serious than basal cell carcinoma;Characterized by scaly red papules or nodules.
  684. Stain
    • Brown or wine-colored discoloration.
    • Stains occur after certain diseases, or after moles, freckles, or liver spots disappear.A port wine stain is a birthmark, which is a vascular type of nevus.
  685. Steatoma
    • A sebaceous cyst or subcutaneous tumor filled with sebum;
    • Ranges in size from a pea to an orange.
    • It usually appears on the scalp, neck, & back;Also called a wen.
  686. Tan
    An increase in pigmentation due to the melanin production that results from exposure to UV rays.Melanin is designed to help protect the skin from the sun’s UV rays.
  687. Telangiectasia
    Describes capillaries that have been damaged & are now larger, or distended blood vessels.Commonly called couperose skin.
  688. Tinea
    A fungal infection.
  689. Tinea Corporis
    A contagious infection that forms a ringed, red pattern with elevated edges.Also called ringworm.
  690. Tinea Versicolor
    Yeast infection that inhibits melanin production.
  691. Tubercle
    An abnormal rounded, solid lump;Larger than a papule.
  692. Tumor
    A large nodule;An abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive cell multiplication & varying in size, shape, & color.
  693. Ulcer
    • An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus & loss of skin depth.
    • A deep erosion;A depression in the skin, normally due to infection or cancer.
  694. Ureticaria
  695. Vasodilation
    Vascular dilation of blood vessels.
  696. Verruca
    • A wart;
    • Hypertrophy of the papillae & epidermis caused by a virus.It is infectious & contagious.
  697. Vesicles
    A small blister or sac containing clear fluid.Poison ivy & poison oak produce vesicles.
  698. Vitiligo
    White spots or areas on the skin from lack of pigment cells;Sunlight makes it worse.
  699. Wheal
    • An itchy, swollen lesion caused by a blow, insect bite, skin allergy reaction, or stings.
    • Hives & mosquito bites are wheals.Hives (urticaria) can be caused by exposure to allergens used in products.
  700. AHAs (Alpha Hydroxy Acids)
    • AHAs are naturally-occurring milk acids;
    • Glycolic, lactic, malic, & tartaric acid.
    • AHAs exfoliate by loosening the bonds between dead corneum cells & dissolve the intercellular cement.Acids also stimulate cell renewal.
  701. Alcohol
    • Antiseptic & solvent used in perfumes, lotions, & astringents.
    • SD alcohol is a special denatured ethyl alcohol.Also known as ethanol
  702. Algae
    Derived from minerals & phytohormones;Remineralizes & revitalizes the skin.
  703. Allantoin
    Used in cold cream, hand lotion, hair lotion, aftershave, & other skin-soothing cosmetics because of its ability to help heal wounds & skin ulcers & to stimulate the growth of healthy tissue.
  704. Aloe Vera
    • The most popular botanical used in cosmetic formulations;
    • Emollient & film-forming gum resin with hydrating, softening, healing, antimicrobial, & anti-inflammatory properties.
  705. Alum
    Compound made of aluminum, potassium, or ammonium sulfate with strong astringent action.
  706. Ampoules
    Small, sealed vials containing a single application of highly concentrated extracts in a water or oil base.
  707. Anhydrous
    Describes products that do not contain any water.
  708. Aromatherapy
    The therapeutic use of plant aromas & essential oils for beauty & health treatment purposes.
  709. Astringents
    Liquids that help remove excess oil on the skin.
  710. Azulene
    • Derived from the chamomile plant & characterized by its deep blue color;
    • Has anti-inflammatory & soothing properties.
  711. Benzyl Peroxide
    Drying ingredient with antibacterial properties commonly used for blemishes & acne.
  712. Beta-Glucans
    Ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics to help reduce the appearance of fine lines & wrinkles by stimulating the formation of collagen.
  713. BHAs (Beta Hydroxy Acids)
    • BHAs are exfoliating organic acids;
    • Salicylic & citric acids.
    • BHAs are milder than AHAs.
    • BHAs dissolve oil & are beneficial for oil skin.
  714. Binders
    Substances such as glycerin that bind, or hold, products together.
  715. Botanicals
    Ingredients derived from plants.
  716. Calendula
    Anti-inflammatory plant extract.
  717. Carbomers
    • Ingredients used to thicken creams;
    • Frequently used in gel products.
  718. Carrot
    • Rich in vitamin A, commonly derived from seeds & as an oil;
    • Also used as product coloring.
  719. Ceramides
    Lipid materials that are a natural part of the intercellular cement.
  720. Certified Colors
    • Inorganic color agents also known as metal salts;
    • Liston on ingredient labels as D&C (drug & cosmetic).
  721. Chamomile
    Plant extract with calming & soothing properties.
  722. Chelating Agent
    A chemical added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of the preservative.
  723. Chemical Exfoliation
    Chemical agent that dissolves dead skin cells.
  724. Clay Masks
    Masks that draw impurities to the surface of the skin as they dry & tighten.
  725. Cleansers
    • Soaps & detergents that clean the skin.
    • Alkalines & fatty acids of oils or soaps are combined to make soaps.
  726. Coenzyme Q10
    Powerful antioxidant that protects & revitalizes skin cells.
  727. Collagen
    • Typically, a long-chain molecular protein that lies on the top of the skin & binds water, also plumps the surface of the skin & prevents water loss.
    • A topical protein derived from animals or synthetically manufactured.
    • Collagen is the protein fiber in the dermis.
  728. Colorants
    Substances such as vegetable, pigment, or mineral dyes that give products color.
  729. Comedogenicity
    Tendency of any topical substance to cause or to worsen a buildup in the follicle, leading to the development of a comedo (blackhead).
  730. Cosmeceuticals
    Products intended to improve the skin’s health & appearance.
  731. Cosmetics
    As defined by the FDA, “articles that are intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.”
  732. Delivery Systems
    Chemical systems that deliver ingredients to specific tissues of the epidermis.
  733. Detergents
    Type of surfactant used as cleansers in skin care products.
  734. DMAE (Dimethylaminoethanol)
    Antioxidant that stabilizes cell membranes & boosts the effect of other antioxidants.
  735. Echinacea (Purple Coneflower)
    • Prevents infection & has healing properties.
    • Used internally to support the immune system.
  736. Emollients
    Ingredients that lubricate, moisturize, & prevent water loss.
  737. Emulsifiers
    Surfactants that cause oil & water to mix & form an emulsion.
  738. Enzyme Peels
    Enzyme products that dissolve keratin proteins (dead skin cells) & exfoliate the skin.
  739. Essential Oils
    • Oils derived from herbs;
    • Have many different properties & effects on the skin & psyche.
  740. Exfoliants
    Mechanical & chemical products or processes used to exfoliate the skin.
  741. Exfoliation
    The peeling or sloughing of the outer layer of skin.
  742. Fatty Acids
    Lubricant ingredients derived from plant oils or animal fats.
  743. Fatty Alcohols
    Fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen.
  744. Fatty Esters
    Emollients produced from fatty acids & alcohols.
  745. Fragrances
    These give products their scent.
  746. Free Radicals
    • Oxygen atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons that cause oxidation.
    • They steal electrons from other molecules, which damages the other molecules.
  747. Fresheners
    Skin-freshening lotions with a low alcohol content.
  748. Functional Ingredients
    Ingredients in cosmetic products that allow the products to spread, give them body & texture, & give them a specific form such as a lotion, cream, or gel.
  749. Glycerin
    • Formed by a decomposition of oils or fats;
    • Excellent skin softener & humectants;
    • Very strong water binder.
  750. Glycoproteins
    Yeast cell derivatives that enhance cellular metabolism, which boosts oxygen uptake in the cell.
  751. Gommage
    Peeling cream that is rubbed off the skin.
  752. Grapeseed Extract
    Powerful antioxidant with soothing properties.
  753. Green Tea
    • Powerful antioxidant & soothing agent.
    • Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, & a stimulant.
    • Helpful for couperose skin.
  754. Healing Agents
    Substances such as chamomile or aloe that help to heal the skin.
  755. Herbs
    • Along with plant extracts, herbs contain phytohormones.
    • Hundreds of different herbs are used in skin care products & cosmetics;
    • They heal, stimulate, soothe & moisturize.
  756. Horsechestnut
    • Extract containing bioflavonoids;
    • Also known as vitamin P.
    • Helps strengthen capillary walls;
    • Used for couperose areas or Telangiectasia.
  757. Humectants
    • Ingredients that attract water.
    • Humectants draw moisture to the skin & soften its surface, diminishing lines caused by dryness.
    • Glycerin is a humectants used in creams & lotions.
  758. Hyaluronic Acid
    • Hydrating fluids found in the skin;
    • Hydrophilic agent with water-binding properties.
  759. Hydrators
    • Ingredients that attract water to the skin’s surface;
    • Also known as humectants or hydrophilic agents.
  760. Jojoba
    • Oil widely used in cosmetics;
    • Extracted from the beanlike seeds of the desert shrub.
    • Used as a lubricant & non-comedogenic emollient & moisturizer.
  761. Kojic Acid
    Skin-brightening agent.
  762. Lakes
    The common term for certified colors.
  763. Lanolin
    • Emollient with moisturizing properties;
    • Also an emulsifier with high water absorption capabilities.
  764. Lavender
    • All-purpose oil having many properties.
    • Antiallergenic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, balancing, energizing, soothing, healing, & conversely, stimulating.
  765. Licorice
    Anti-irritant used for sensitive skin.
  766. Lipids
    • Fats or fatlike substances.
    • Lipids help repair & protect the barrier function of the skin.
  767. Liposomes
    Closed lipid bilayer spheres that encapsulate ingredients, target their delivery to specific tissues of the skin, & control their release.
  768. Lubricants
    • Coat the skin & reduce friction.
    • Mineral oil is a lubricant.
  769. Mask
    Ingredients such as herbs, vitamins, & oils combined with clay, seaweed, or hydrating bases that treat the skin.
  770. Mechanical Exfoliation
    Method of rubbing dead cells off of the skin.
  771. Methylparaben
    • One of the most frequently used preservatives because of its very low sensitizing potential.
    • Combats bacteria & molds;
    • Non-comedogenic.
  772. Mineral Oil
    A lubricant derived from petroleum.
  773. Modelage Masks
    Thermal heat masks.
  774. Moisturizers
    Products formulated to add moisture to the skin.
  775. Mucopolysaccharides
    Carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are also good water binders.
  776. Noncertified Colors
    • Colors that are organic, meaning they come from animal or plant extracts;
    • They can also be natural mineral pigments.
  777. Oil Soluble
    Compatible with oil.
  778. Olfactory System
    Gives us our sense of smell, which is the strongest of the five senses.
  779. Packs
    Cream masks or gel masks that nourish rather than deep-cleanse the skin.
  780. Papaya
    Natural enzyme used for exfoliation & in enzyme peels.
  781. Parabens
    • One of the most commonly used groups of preservatives in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, & food industries;
    • Provide bacteriostatic & fungistatic activity against a diverse number of organisms.
  782. Paraffin Wax Masks
    Mask used to warm the skin & promote penetration of ingredients deeper into the skin through the heat trapped under the surface of the paraffin.
  783. Peptides
    Chains of amino acids used to treat wrinkles & elasticity.
  784. Performance Ingredients
    Ingredients in cosmetic products that cause the actual changes in the appearance of the skin.
  785. Petroleum Jelly
    • An occlusive agent that restores the barrier layer by holding in water.
    • Used after laser surgery to protect the skin while healing.
  786. pH Adjusters
    Acids or alkalis (bases) used to adjust the pH of products.
  787. Phytotherapy
    The use of plant extracts for therapeutic benefits.
  788. Polyglucans
    • Ingredients derived from yeast cells that help strengthen the immune system & stimulate the metabolism;
    • They are also hydrophilic & help preserve & protect collagen & elastin.
  789. Polymers
    • Chemical compounds formed by a number of small molecules;
    • Advanced vehicles that release substances onto the skin’s surface at a microscopically-controlled rate.
  790. Potassium Hydroxide
    A strong alkali used in soaps & creams.
  791. Preservatives
    • Chemical agents that inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic formulations.
    • These kill bacteria & prevent products from spoiling.
  792. Propylene Glycol
    A humectants often used in dry or sensitive skin moisturizers.
  793. Quaternium 15
    • An all-purpose preservative active against bacteria, mold, & yeast.
    • It is probably the greatest formaldehyde releaser among cosmetic preservatives, causing dermatitis & allergies.
  794. Retinoic Acid
    • A vitamin A derivative.
    • It has demonstrated an ability to alter collagen synthesis & is used to treat acne & visible signs of aging.
    • Side effects are irritation, photosensitivity, skin dryness, redness, & peeling.
  795. Retinol
    A natural form of vitamin A, stimulates cell repair & helps to normalize skin cells by generating new cells.
  796. Rose
    • Credited with moisturizing, astringent, tonic, & deodorant properties;
    • Found in the forms of rose extracts, oil or water.
  797. Salicylic Acid
    • A beta hydroxyl acid with exfoliating & antiseptic properties;
    • Natural sources include sweet birch, willow bark, & wintergreen.
  798. Seaweed
    • Seaweed derivatives such as algae have many nourishing properties.
    • Specifically, seaweed is known for its humectants & moisturizing properties, vitamin content, metabolism stimulation & detoxification, & aiding skin firmness.
  799. Serums
    Concentrated liquid ingredients for the skin designed to penetrate & treat various skin conditions.
  800. Silicones
    An oil that is chemically combined with silicon & oxygen & leaves a non-comedogenic, protective film on the surface of the skin.
  801. Sodium Bicarbonate
    • Baking soda;
    • An alkaline inorganic salt used as a buffering agent, neutralizer & a pH adjuster.
  802. Solvent
    Substances that dissolve another substance to form a solution.
  803. Sorbitol
    Humectant that absorbs moisture from the air to prevent skin dryness.
  804. Sphingolipids
    • Ceramides, or lipid material, that are a natural part of the intercellular cement.
    • Glycosphingolipids & phospholipids are also natural lipids found in the barrier layer.
  805. Squalane
    • Derived from olives;
    • Desensitizes & nourishes;
    • An emollient.
  806. Squalene
    • Originally from shark-liver oil;
    • Also occurs in small amounts in olive oil, wheat germ oil, & rice bran oil;
    • Also found in human sebum.
    • A lubricant & perfume fixative.
  807. Sulfur
    • Sulfur reduces oil=gland activity & dissolves the skin’s surface layer of dry, dead cells.
    • This ingredient is commonly used in acne products.
    • It can cause allergic skin reactions in some sensitive people.
  808. Surfactants
    • Surface active agents that reduce surface tension between the skin & the product to increase product spreadability;
    • Also allow oil & water to mix;
    • Detergents & emulsifiers.
  809. Tea Tree
    • Soothing & antiseptic;
    • Antifungal properties.
  810. Tissue Respiratory Factor (TRF)
    Ingredient derived from yeast cells that functions as an anti-inflammatory & moisturizing ingredient.
  811. Titanium Dioxide
    An inorganic physical sunscreen that reflects UVA rays.
  812. Toners
    Liquids that tone & tighten the skin.
  813. Urea
    • Properties include enhancing the penetration abilities of other substances.
    • Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, & deodorizing action allow urea to protect the skin’s surface & help maintain healthy skin.
    • Does not induce photoallergy, phototoxicity, or sensitization.
  814. Vehicles
    Spreading agents & ingredients that carry or deliver other ingredients into the skin & make them more effective.
  815. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
    An antioxidant vitamin needed for proper repair of the skin & tissues.
  816. Vitamin K
    Vitamin responsible for the synthesis of factors necessary for blood coagulation.
  817. Water Soluble
    Mixable with water.
  818. Witch Hazel
    • Extracted from the bark of the hamanelis shrub;
    • Can be a soothing agent or, in higher concentrations, an astringent.
  819. Zinc Oxide
    • An inorganic physical sunscreen that reflects UVA rays.
    • Also used to protect, soothe, & heal the skin;
    • Is somewhat astringent, antiseptic, & antibacterial.
Card Set
Esthetician Fundamentals
Esthetician Fundamentals