FA Med F, SRum III

  1. what are sheep checked for at end of breeding season (october)? how is it treated?
    • oestrus ovis - ivermectin
    • (sneezing, stomping feet, mucoid nasal discharge)
  2. how long is breeding season/when should rams be removed from ewe pens?
    50-60 days (3+ heat cycles)
  3. when is pregnancy check ultrasound done? what should be done is ewe has multiples? what is done if they didnt get pregnant?
    • at 40-70 days
    • separate ewes with multiples
    • cull open ewes
  4. Between oct-november, ewes may abort so what should be boostered? what is considered natural rate of abortion?
    • enzootic abortion of ewes
    • vibrio (campylobacter)
    • 2-3%
  5. does vibriosis cause early or late term abortions? is this a venereal disease in sheep?
    • late (2-4 wk prior to lambing)
    • NOT venereal (fecal/oral transmission)
  6. what are clinical signs/diagnostic features of vibriosis?
    • fever, diarrhea, vaginal discharge
    • may be asymptomatic
    • thick, brown placenta
    • *potbellied fetuses w/donut like foci in liver*
  7. how is vibriosis in sheep treated? will ewes develop immunity?
    • oral chlortetracycline in feed 60d prior to and up until lambing
    • -ewes that abort develop immunity
  8. is toxoplasmosis a venereal disease in sheep? will ewes develop immunity?
    • NOT venereal (protozoa shed by cats)
    • if abort, develop immunity
    • *zoonotic*
  9. what is the effect of toxoplasma gondii on pregnant ewes?
    • early embryonic death if infected up to 40days of gestation
    • day 40-120 infected - abortion/mummy
    • past 120, may have no effect or weak babies
  10. what are clinical signs/diagnostic features of toxoplasma gondii?
    • *mummified feti, some normal lambs*
    • white foci of necrosis on cotyledons
  11. how is toxoplasma gondii prevented?
    • prevent feline fecal contamination
    • neuter cats
    • feed ionophores
  12. what is causative agent of enzootic abortion in ewes? when during gestation is abortion?
    • chlamydophila abortus
    • late term abortions; still/weak lambs
  13. what are expected clinical signs in ewes infected with EAE?
    • ewes show no signs (may abort at next pregnancy)
    • if lamb survives, may have pneumonia
  14. how is EAE transmitted? will ewe have immunity?
    • ingest feces/urogenital fluids
    • *venereally* transmitted by carrier ram
    • yes, immunity post infection
  15. what are diagnostic findings/clinical signs with EAE?
    • serosangiunous vaginal discharge
    • *recent arthritis, conjunctivitis*
    • no lesions on fetus
    • coagulative necrosis of cotyledons
  16. is there a vaccine for EAE?
    yes killed bacterin, but not for goats
  17. how is EAE treated?
    tetracycline injection then chlortetracycline added to feed 60 prior to lambing until lamb
  18. In december when lambing begins, what does low quality hay predispose ewes to?
    prolapsed vagina
  19. what is crutching?
    removing wool from udder and perineum to avoid e.coli infection with lambing
  20. what % fat and protein should lamb milk replacer be?
    • fat 30%
    • protein 20-25%
  21. how much colostrum do sheep need? what is best alternative species?
    • 10-15% BWT (about 120 ml/kg)
    • goat colostrum better than cow
  22. what is major cause of perinatal mortality in sheep?
    hypothermia and starvation
  23. what are some complications associated with castration?
    • tetanus
    • maggots
    • infection
    • missed testicles
  24. where is correct place to remove sheep's tail?
    • between caudal vertebrae
    • want tail long enough to reach vulva
    • *use tetanus prophylaxis and fly spray*
  25. if lambs are born in january, when should creep feeding start? what should Ca: P ratio be?
    • march - supplemental grain to nursing lambs
    • 2:1
  26. how old are lambs for first vaccines? what are common first vaccines?
    • 4-6 wks
    • C. perfringens C, D and tetanus toxoid
    • consider intranasal IBR/PI3
  27. how old are most lambs when weaned?
    • 8-10 weeks then most go to feedlot (April)
    • should be eating ~2 lbs dry feed per lamb per day
Card Set
FA Med F, SRum III
FA Med F, SRum III