Name the 5 senses
What are the 3 olfactory receptors located in the epithelium layer and describe them.
- Bipolar neurons that respond to a stimuli
- supporting cells protect by detoxifying chemicals
- basal cells stem cells reproduce new olfactory receptors
What type of stimuli does the olfactory receptors respond to?
olfactory hairs respond to chemical stimulants
Outline the olfactory pathway
- olfactory receptor cells
- olfactory bulb and tract
- olfactory nerve
- primary olfactory area of the cerebral cortex
4A. Describe a taste bud, where are they located.
Taste buds are receptors called papilla and are located on the tongue.
4B. What are the cell types and functions of a taste bud (Gustatory)?
- Basal cell--produce supporting cells
- supporting cells---support the gustatory cells
- Gustatory receptor cells---generate action potentials based on chemicals
- sensory neurons--recieve action potentials from GRC
- gustatory hair--detects stimuli
- Papilla (taste buds)
- tastes includes:
sweet,sour,salty,bitter and umami receptors
Outline the gustatory (taste) pathway
- Taste buds
- primary gustatory cortex of the cerebral cortex
List the accessory eye structures
- lacrimal apparatus
- extrinsic eye muscles
7A. Describe the structure of the eyes and functions
- eyelids shade and lubricates
- eyelashes and eyebrows protect the eyeball from debri
- lacrimal apparatus produce and drain lacrimal fluid
- extrinsic eye muscles move the eyeballs
7B. What are the three tunics?
- inner retina
7C. Give the structure of the fiberous tunics and its description
Fiberous tunic--superficial layer of the eye is avascular and contains:
cornea- dense ct and collagen that is transparent and functions to bends and refract light rays
scelera-dense ct and functions to give shape to the eyeball.
7D. Give the structure of the vascular tunic and its description
Vascular tunic is the middle layer of the eye that is vascular and contains:
cilary body secretes aqueous humor and maintains the lens shape
choroid lines most of the interior eye surface that and provides provides nutrients.
Iris regulates the amount of light that enters the pupil
7E. Give the structure of the inner retina tunics and its description
inner tunic includes:
pigmented layer helps absorb stray light rays
- neural layer contains photo-, bipolar cells and ganglion cells
- rods--photo receptors respond to dim light
- cones--photo receptors that respond to bright lights
what does the neural layer of the eye consist of?
contains photo receptors(rods and cones), bipolar cells, and ganglion cells
what are rods and cones cones in photo receptors?
sensitive receptor cells of the retina
Compare the functions of rods and cones.
Rods allows us to see in dim lights in (black, white and gray)
cones produce color vision when lights are bright
Discuss the location and arrangement of neurons in the retina
3 distinct retinal neurons are located in the neural layer: light hits these areas in order of
- ganglion cells
- bipolar cells
- photo receptors
- pigmented layer of epithelium
Define optic disk
an area in the eye that attaches the retina and the optic nerve, considered the blind spot
Define fovea centralis
a small depression composed of cones(bright lights and color vision) area of sharpest vision in the eye.
Name the hollow chambers of the eye and what they are filled with.
Anterior chamber and posterior chambers are filled with aqueous humor
Vitreous chamber is filled with vitreous body a jelly like substance
19A. What is the role of accomodation?
adjustment in shape of the lens to see objects more clearly.
19B. What is the role of pupillary constriction?
the adjustment of the pupil to regulate the entrance of light.
19c. What is the role of convergence on image formation?
allows both eyes to work together while focusing in on a set of objects that are very close (binocular vision)
or 3D depth perception
Defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye that causes light rays to be uneven and not sharp in the retina
Define visual acuity
vision clarity eye test
What is a Rhodospin?
stacked photo sensitive red pigment in rods that when light enters it is transformed in nerve impulses.
What is the visual pathway to the brain?
- bipolar cells
- ganglion cells
- optic nerve
- optic chiasm
- optic tract
- primary visual cerebral cortex
What are the 2 main functions of the ear?
Equillibrium and hearing
List the 3 main divisions of the ear
- External ear
- middle ear
- internal ear
26A. what is the structure and functions of the external ear
External ear collects sound waves.
- auricle collects sound waves from the outside
- external auditory canal carries sound to the
- tympanic membrane which vibrates into frequency of sound waves
26B. what is the structure and functions of the middle ear?
- auditory ossicles (malleous, incas,stapes)
- transmit and amplify vibrations
auditory tube keeps air pressure equal to the pressure of the external environment
26C. what is the structure and functions of the inner ear?
semicircular canals are filled with fluids to help maintain balance.
- vestibule maintains equillibrium
- semicircular canals contains fluids that maintain equillibrium
- cochlea contains hearing receptors
What is the pathway of sound waves through the ear?
- external auditory canal
- tympanic membrane
- vestibulochochlear nerve
- primary auditory region of the cerebral cortx
Describe the receptor cells involved in hearing and in equillibrium.
hearing: movement of the basilar membrane caused by fluids in the ear, forces hair cells to bend, resulting in a generation of nerve impulses in sensory neurons.
Equilibrium: movement of the head causes the fluids within the ear to move bending the hair cells and generating nerve impulses.
Outline the auditory pathway to the brain.
- hair cells
- auditory impulses along cochlear branch
- vestibulochochlear nerve
- primary auditory area of cerbral cortex