Music History Exam 4

  1. Americanism
    Combines American styles (Jazz and folk) with traditional European genres. Nationalistic style.

    Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring 1945
  2. Bricolage
    Using the environment (umbrella, lamp post) to look spontaneous when in fact scene is carefully choreographed.

    Nacio Herb Brown and Arthur Freed: Singin' in the Rain from Singin' in the Rain 1950
  3. Cathy Berberian
    American actor and soprano, former wife of Luciano Berio. Was able to make unique virtuosic sounds with her voice. Berio composed several pieces for her.

    Luciano Berio Sequenza III 1965
  4. Chance procedures (Aleatoric music)
    Indeterminate music. Influenced by concepts from Zen Buddhism (non-intention). Purposelessness, nonexpression, nondiscrimination. Things as they are.

    John Cage 4'33'' or Music of Changes 1950
  5. Classical film score
    non-diegetic scoring. Mostly in a 19th C Wagnerian style; use of leitmotives/ themes.

    Max Steiner King Kong "Main Title" 1933
  6. Diegetic
    (a.k.a. source music). Music is audible to the characters on the screen; viewer can see its source (a piano player or phonograph).

    Harry Warren and Al Dubin Pettin' in the Park from Gold Diggers of 1933, 1933
  7. Eclecticism
    Having a variety of influences. Messiaen's favorite sources include: birds, Russian music, Debussy, plainchant, Hindu rhythmics.

    Oliver Messiaen Quartet for the End of Time 1940
  8. Graphic notation
    Indeterminacy involves extended techniques. New notation had to be developed with descriptions from composers of what the performer should do.

    Krzysztof Penderesky Threnody for the victims of Hiroshima 1960
  9. Indeterminacy
    Leaving things up to the performer. "play as many times as you want" or "play with desired dynamics." Set of instructions for the performer.

    Terry Riley In C 1965
  10. Minimalism
    Accessibility (tonal, rhythmically regular, structurally and textually simple). Audible process. Materials reduced to minimum and then repeated. Simplified process. Development over long spans of time. 

    Terry Riley In C 1965
  11. Modes of Limited Transposition
    Approach to harmony. 7 possible symmetrical divisions of the octave (whole tone = 6 pitches; octatonic = 8 pitches)

    Oliver Messiaen Quartet for the End of Time 1940
  12. Myth of Spontaneity
    Song and dance numbers look and feel spontaneous, in truth they are completely planned and choreographed.

    Nacio Herb Brown and Arthur Freed: Singin' in the Rain from Singin' in the Rain 1950
  13. Nadia Boulanger
    A French composer, conductor and teacher who taught many of the leading composers and musicians of the 20th C, including Aaron Copland.

    Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring 1945
  14. Non-diegetic
    (a.k.a. underscoring). Background music; not audible to the characters, not visible to the viewer.

    Nacio Herb Brown and Arthur Freed: Singin' in the Rain from Singin' in the Rain 1950
  15. Pandiatonic
    harmony built on 4ths and 5ths instead of 3rds. Simultaneously chromatic and diatonic pitches.

    Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring 1945
  16. Polystylism
    Blending of styles. Anything goes, from ancient to modern, high art to pop. All styles, genres, eras.

    Alfred Schnittke Concerto Grosso No. 1 1975
  17. Post-minimalism
    Using many of the same techniques as minimalism. Differences include narrative and/ or expressivity, less indeterminancy, more composition.

    Steve Reich Tehillim 1980
  18. Post-modernism
    Return to accessibility. Reconnecting with the past. Functional tonality, quotations, and/ or allusion. Integration of popular idioms, and spirituality.

    Arvo Part Seven Magnificent Antiphons 1990
  19. Prepared Piano
    "A percussion orchestration for tight spaces." By adding objects (i.e. screws) inside the piano, the timbre is changed.

    John Cage Sonata and Interludes 1950
  20. Social Realism
    Music/ art that the people can easily understand; simple in style, shares the public's values, represents socialism in a positive way (propaganda). Approved subjects in the USSR include: historical Russian heros, folk/ peasant culture, simple harmonic language/ simple forms, no experimental modern styles. No symbolism or expressionism. Patriotic text.

    Sergei Prokofiev Alexander Nevsky 1940
  21. Tintinnabulation (Tintinnabuli)
    bell-like sounds between a small number of voices, influenced by the sound of chant.

    Arvo Part Seven Magnificent Antiphons 1990
  22. Total Serialism
    In addition to pitch, dynamics, durations, articulations, and instrument entrances are all serialized. Extremely complex, conductor needed for even small ensembles. The music is meant to be experienced, not understood.

    WT: "Who Cares if you Listen"- music as evolution, scientific discovery. It has to happen regardless of people listening. More efficient tonal vocabulary. Forces people to improve their perceptual capacities.

    Peter Boulez Le Marteau Sans Maitre 1955
  23. Ultramodernism (American Experimentalism)
    Develop new sounds, use new materials, or resources to make sounds. Get people thinking about sound in new ways. 

    John Cage Sonata and Interludes 1950
Card Set
Music History Exam 4
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