Cardiovascular System Diagnostic Terms

  1. acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
    signs and symptoms indicating an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus, or spasm within a coronary artery, causing a reduction or loss of blood flow to myocardial tissue; includes unstable angina and other pathological events leading to myocardial infarction (MI); early diagnosis and rapid treatment are critical to avoid or minimize damage to heart muscle
  2. arrthymia
    any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
  3. bradycardia
    slow heart rate (less than 60 beats/minute)
  4. fibrillation
    chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
  5. premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
    a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
  6. tachycardia
    fast heart rate (greater than 100 beats/minute)
  7. bacterial endocarditis
    a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
  8. cardiac tamponade
    compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac,a s results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart (tampon = a plug)
  9. cardiomyopathy
    a general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)
  10. congenital anomaly of the heart
    malformations of the heart that are present at birth (congenital = born with; anomaly = irregularity)
  11. atrial septal defect (ASD)
    an opening in the septum separating the atria
  12. coarctation of the aorta
    narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
  13. patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
    an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of he fetal ductus arterioles to close after birth (patent = open)
  14. ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
  15. congestive heart failure (CHF)
    left ventricular failure
    failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
  16. cor pulmonale
    right ventricular failure
    a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
  17. hypertension (HTN)
    persistently high blood pressure
  18. essential hypertension
    primary hypertension
    high blood pressure attributed to no single cause; risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
  19. secondary hypertension
    high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (e.g., kidney disease)
  20. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
  21. myocardial infarction (MI)
    heart attack; death of myocardial tissue (infarction) caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) as a result of an occlusion (plugging) of a coronary artery; usually caused by atherosclerosis; symptoms include pain in the chest or upper body (shoulders, neck, and jaw), shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and nausea
  22. myocarditis
    inflammation of myocardium; most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
  23. pericarditis
    inflammation of the pericardium
  24. rheumatic heart disease
    damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
  25. sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)
    the abrupt cessation of any cardiac output (CO), most commonly as the result of ventricular fibrillation; causes sudden death unless defibrillation is initiated immediately
  26. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
  27. phlebitis
    inflammation of a vein
  28. thrombophlebitis
    inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
  29. varicose veins
    abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
Card Set
Cardiovascular System Diagnostic Terms
Medical Terminology chapter 5