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  1. What is the difference between Voluntary Hospitalization and Involuntary Hospitalization?
    • involuntary is against your will
    • and 
    • voluntary is by choice
  2. What is Civil Commitment?
    AKA:Involuntary hospitalization vs. (voluntary hospitalization)

    • >Pre:1969, the need for treatment was sufficient cause for civil commitment 
    • >Post:1969, the need for treatment alone is no longer sufficient legal cause of civil commitment in most states (incl. AZ)
  3. What are the criteria for which someone can be involuntarily hospitalized in Arizona?
    • Danger to self
    • Dangerousness to others
    • Persistently or Acutely disabled
    • Gravely disabled
    • ----danger posed must be imminent
    • ----not due to alcohol/drug abuse;must be a psychiatric disorder
  4. What rights does a person who is civilly committed have?
    • Patients retain some civil rights when involuntarily committed:
    • ---Right to treatment (i.e. not warehoused;human environment,sufficient qualified staff, individualized treatment plans, minimize restrictions)
    • ---Right to least restrictive environment (e.g outpatient,inpatient,combo)
    • ---Treatment must be time limited (90,180,or 365 days; must re-petition for additional time)
    • ---Right to refuse treatment (informed consent required;waived if patient is DTS(danger to self), DTO(danger to others)
  5. What does it mean that a person is incompetent to stand trial?
    A person who does not have an understanding of what is happening to them in the courtroom and who cannot participate in their defense are said to be incompetent to stand trial.

    • Can include the following impairments:
    • ---Capacity to understand informa
    • ---Think rationally about alternative cotionurses of action
    • ---Make good choices
    • ---Appreciate one's situation as a criminal defendant.
  6. What are the different outcomes that can occur when the question is raised about a defendant's competence to stand trial?
    • After evaluation, there are 3 possible outcomes.
    • ---Competent to stand trial=trial continues
    • ---Incompetent and restorable=patient sent to Correctional Health Services Restoration to Competency program for treatment
    • ---Incompetent and not restorable=charges dropped. However person may meet criteria for civil commitment(24-48 hours to file)
  7. What is the case of John Hinckley?
    • -Fired 6 round in an attempt to assassinate President Reagan to win the love of Jodie Foster.
    • -His behavior laid the foundation for major revisions in criminal responsibility statues at federal and state levels.
    • -After 2-3 days jury deliberation,Hinckley was found not guilty by reason of insanity on all 13 counts and sentenced to hospital until he was no longer viewed as danger due to his mental illness.
    • 1. Volitional component(irresistible impulse) was removed from original M'Naghton mode.
    • 2.The burden of proof was shifted to the defense.
  8. What is the M'Naghton Rule(1843)?
    At the time of the crime, individual was so affected by a disease of the mind s/he did not know the nature of the acts s/he was committing or did not know it was wrong.
  9. What is the Irresistible Impulse Rule(1934)?
    At the time of the crime, the individual was driven by an irresistible impulse to perform the act or had a diminished capacity to resist performing the act. "Policemen at the elbow."
  10. What is Durham Rule(1954)?
    The crime was a product of  mental disease or defect.
  11. What is the American Legal Institute Rule (1962)?
    At the time of the crime, as a result of a mental disease or defect, the person lacked substantial capacity to either(1) appreciate the wrongfulness of the act or to(2) conform his/her conduct to the law(burden of proof on prosecutor)
  12. What is the Insanity defence Reform Act (1984)?
    • At the time of the crime as a result of mental disease or mental retardation the person was unable to appreciate the wrongfulness of his/her conduct (used by federal govt and many State); also burden of proof rests on defence.
    • ---Controversial: While perceived as a mean by which guilty people "get off", the insanity defence is used much less often than many think.
  13. What problems have been identified with the insanity defense?
    • >>>Seen as a way for people to "get off"
    • >>>people do not have to be chronically insane for the insanity defense to apply. They only have to be judged to have been insane at the time they committed the illegal acts. This judgement can be difficult to make" pg. 506 in text.
    • ---In short, there is little evident that the insanity defense is widely used to help people avoid incarceration for their crime.(507) Even if judged NOT GUILTY by reason of insanity, they are usually not set free...often sentenced to the same term(as they would serve in jail) within a mental institution or under care and supervision.
  14. What is guilty but mentally ill?
    -A verdict that requires a convicted criminal to serve the full sentence designated for his or her crime, with the exception that the he or she will receive treatment for mental illness.
  15. What are some criticisms of this verdict?
    • 1. Critics argue that the GBMI verdict is essentially a guilty verdict and a means of eliminating the insanity defence (510)
    • 2.There's no guarantee treatment will be given (when in prison)
    • 3."In most states, it is left to legal authorities to decide whether to incarcerate people judged guilty but mentally ill in mental institutions or prisons and, if they are sent to prisons, whether to provide them with treatment for their mental illness(510)
  16. What is the case of Andrea Yates?
  17. What is positive mental health? What are the different principles authors describe living a healthy psychological lifestyle?
    • -Life is precious, you only get one body, take care of it.
    • -Life isn't fair, freedom is what you do with whats been done to you
    • -Anticipation is worse than the actual experience
    • -Avoidance makes stuff harder
    • -Control is an illusion
    • -Cultivate and celebrate good relationships, be civil but keep you distance from the toxic ones.
    • -Giving is better than taking
    • -Learn from your  and other's experiences.
    • -Laugh at yourself, at the world, often.
    • -You don't get extra points for suffering.
    • -Find your passion and work hard.
    • -Seek Balance
  18. The cultural relativism criterion argues that
    there are no universal standards of normal or abnormal behavior that are identical across all cultures.
  19. What are the four Ds of abnormality?
    • Dysfunction-when they interfere with the persons  ability to function to daily life to hold a job,or to form close relationships.
    • Deviance- unusual behavior such as chronic lying, and stealing or hearing voices when no one is around, lead to judgments of abnormality.
    • Distress-behaviors or feelings that cause distress to the individual or to others.
    • Dangerousness-behaviors or feelings that are potentially harmful to the individual such as suicide or excessive aggression.
  20. Plato argued that mental illness resulted from?
    impulse, passion or appetite
  21. According to Greek physicians, such as hippocrates, psychological problems were due to:
    an imbalance of four humors (blood,phlegm, yellow bile and black bile)
  22. During the time period called the Renaissance, which of the following was the predominant explanation for abnormality or mental illness?
  23. Which statement best characterizes the beliefs of the moral treatment movement?
    Mental disorders result from the separation of people nature and the stresses of rapid social change.
  24. Ivan Pavlov's work in the area of _____led psychologist John Watson to reject psychoanalytic and biological theories as an explanation for phobias.
    Classical Conditioning
  25. Which movement was championed by the Clifford Beers and led him to write the book ,A mind that found itself?
    Mental Hygiene Movement
  26. The discovery that syphilis could cause general paresis led to the:
    Belief that biological factors can cause mental illness.
  27. Hypnosis is a technique that was developed as component of:
  28. Who developed a classification system for mental disorders that remains highly influential today?
    Emil Kraepelin
  29. The finding that behaviors followed by positive consequences were more likely to be repeated than behaviors followed by negative consequences is known as:
    Operant conditioning
  30. In response to the idea that behaviorism was limited in it's ability to explain many of the mental illnesses from which people suffer, the _____ revolution began focusing on the thought process that influence behaviors and emotions.
  31. Psychiatric medications can be prescribed by:
    Psychiatrists only and some clinical psychologists.
  32. People may be considered abnormal even if their behavior does  not harm them according to the:
    Unusualness Criterion
  33. Marco lives on the street, wear filthy, foul-smelling clothing, and often does not eat for days at a time. He is, however quite happy with his existence and has often refused the kind offers of assistance that he gets from passers-by. According to the____criterion, Marco would not be considered abnormal.
    Unusualness Criterion.
  34. Which of the following is NOT one of the four D's of abnormality?
    The behaviors are ones that the individual wishes to rid of.
  35. The idea that the following "vital air" onto specific body organs was espoused by the:
  36. The Egyptians used to believe that a woman's "wandering uterus" was responsible for:
  37. Most Greeks and Romans view abnormality:
    Saw madness as an affliction from the gods.
  38. The moral treatment movement collapsed toward the end of the nineteenth century because:
    the expansion of asylums created a shortage of qualified personal to care for the number of people who required treatment.
  39. The cultural relativism criterion argues that:
    There are no universal standards of normal or abnormal behavior that are identical across all cultures.
  40. Maladaptive behavior causes people to suffer distress and prevents them from functioning in daily life. T or F?
    False,to be maladaptive we must have all four d's present. distress, dysfunction,dangerousness and deviance.
  41. Plato classified mental disorders into epilepsy, manic, melancholia and brain fever. T or F?
    False, Hippocrates did.
  42. A theory in ancient Chinese medical philosophy was that human emotions are controlled by internal organs.
  43. The phenomenon of dance frenzies was observed frequently in the middle ages.
  44. Albert Bandura, Aaron Beck, and Albert Ellis were all key figures in the cognitive revolution.
  45. The discovery of phenothiazine made it possible to treat hallucinations and delusions.
  46. The patient's rights movement emerged in the early 1970s?
    False, 1960s.
  47. Psychic epidemics are now considered to occur when large numbers of people begin to engage in unusual behaviors that appear to have a psychological origin.
  48. Tarantis is the drilling holes in the skulls of people displaying abnormal behavior.
  49. The community mental health movement, designed to provide coordinated care to people in inpatient hospitals, was launched in 1984 by the president Ronald Reagan.
  50. The Kahun Papyrus provide a detailed description of the brain and assigned mental functioning to it.
    False, "This document lists disorders,doctors cause/disorder and their treatments.
  51. Dorothea Dix is known for lobbying to improve the conditions of mental health treatment facilities and the moral treatment of patients.
  52. Freud believed that much of the mental life of an individual remains hidden from consciousness.
  53. The deinstitutionalization movement led to the drastic reduction in the number of patients in state psychiatric hospital as patients began to be treated in the community.
  54. B.F Skinner, a key figure in the cognitive revolution, argued that self-efficacy beliefs are crucial in determining people's well-being.
    False,Albert Bandura did.
  55. Biological approach?
    View the biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality.
  56. Psychological approach?
    approach to abnormality that focus on personality, behavior and ways of thinking as possible causes of abnormality.
  57. sociocultural approach?
    psychopathology focusing on the role of the environment  stress and cultured in producing psychopathology.
  58. biopsychosocial approach?
    approach to psychopathology that seeks to integrate biological,psychological and social factors in understanding and treating psychopathology.
  59. diathesis-stress models?
    Models that assert that only when a diathesis or vulnerability interacts with a stress or trigger will a disorder emerge.
  60. Cerebral Cortex?
    part of the brain that regulates complex activities, such as speech and analytical thinking.
  61. thalamus?
    structure of the brain that directs incoming information from sense receptors (such as vision and hearing) to the cerebrum.
  62. hypothalamus
    component of the brain that regulates eating, drinking, sex and basic emotions;abnormal behaviors involving any of these activities may be the result of dysfunction in the hypothalamus.
  63. limbic system?
    part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted.
  64. Amygdala?
    structure of the limbic system critical in emotions such as fear.
  65. hippocampus?
    structure of the brain involved in memory and in the stress response.
  66. neurotransmitters
    biochemicals, released from a sending neuron, that transmit messages to a receiving neuron in the brain and nervous system.
  67. Synapse
    space between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron into which neurotransmitters are first released (also knows as the synaptic gap)
  68. receptors
    molecules on the membrane of the neurons to which neurotransmitters bind.
  69. reuptake
    process in which a sending neuron reabsorbs some of the neurotransmitter in the synapse, decreasing the amount left in the synapse.
  70. degradation
    process in which a receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse, breaking down neurotransmitters into other biochemicals.
  71. Harold has a family history of depression, and he just experience the death of his wide which has been very difficult for him. He developed major depressive symptoms shortly after her death. Which of the following concepts does this example illustrate?
    the diathesis-stress model
  72. Cocaine and amphetamines____the actions of norepinephrine by slowing down its reuptake process.
  73. Which of the following statements is true?
    A.-DNA is made of genes,which are made of chromosomes.
    B.-Chromosomes are made of genes,which are made of DNA
    C.-Genes are made of chromosomes, which are made of DNA
    D.-DNA is made of chromosomes, which are made of genes.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Most mental disorders result from:
    A combination of multiple abnormal genes.
  75. _____prevention is focused on detecting a disorder at it's earliest stages and preventing it from developing into a full blown mental illness.
  76. Many people favor biological theories of mental disorders because they:
    Take away the responsibility and blame placed on the individual suffering from the disorder.
  77. According to Freud, sublimation is responsible for:
    translating wishes and needs into socially acceptable behaviors.
  78. Which of the following is not one of the three elements of effective treatment identified by your author?
    the use of appropriately prescribed psychotropic medications.
  79. The Oedipus complex occurs during the ___stage.
  80. According to Freud, abnormal or maladaptive functioning occurs when a person becomes ruled by their
    defense mechanisms
  81. Which of the following psychodynamic theorist forwarded the concept of the collective unconscious?
    Carl Jung
  82. ____therapy emerged out of modern psychodynamic theories and differs in it's structured and direct approach to interacting with a client.
  83. If someone were to shriek out loud as lightning struck nearby, his or her shrieking would be:
    unconditioned response
  84. E.L Thorndike's Law of Effect states that:
    behaviors followed by a reward are strengthened  whereas those followed by punishment are weakened.
  85. According to Albert Bandura,_____learning takes palce when a person sees the rewards and punishments that another person receives for his or her behavior.
  86. A major problematic of cognitive theories of abnormality is the fact that they:
    have not shown convincingly that maladaptive cognitions precede and cause disorders.
  87. Humanistic theories of abnormality.
    Focus on helping people to achieve their greatest potential.
  88. Your author points out that people frequently ask " Is the cause of this disorder biological or psychological or social". This is referred to as:
  89. According to the family systems theories of abnormality a(n)____family iso ne that is isolated from all forces outside the family and does not adapt well to changes within the family.
  90. The sociocultural approaches to abnormality:
    are criticized for being vague about how social and cultural forces lead to psychological disturbances.
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