true or false: the most cartilage is found in old animals
cut large bones into what size for stock?
what is a broth?
made by simmering meat or poultry this book means a flavorful liquid
obtained from the simmering of meats or vegetables
what is mirepoix?
combination of celery, onions, carrots
what is the proportion in mirepoix?
what is a white mirepoix?
remove the carrots, can also substitute leeks for onions. may use mushroom trimmings. for white sauces
how should mirepoix be cut?
relatively uniform, size depends on length of cooking
why would you add acid products to stock?
acids help dissolve connective tissue
would you use tomato products in a white stock?
no, it colors the stock
what does too much tomatoe do to a stock?
make it cloudy
should you make stock out of scraps and leftovers?
only if they are high quality and harmonious
do you add salt to a stock?
what is a bouquet garni?
an assortment of fresh herbs and other aromatics tied in a bundle with a string
what is a sachet?
a collection of herbs and spices tied in cheesecloth
what proportion are the ingredients?
mirepoix 1 : bones 5 : water 10 by weight (1:8:1.5)
how long should you cook a vegetable stock?
about 45 minutes
why blanch bones?
removes some of the impurities that cause cloudiness
what is the procedure for blanching?
rinse bones in cold, place in stockpot and cover with cold, bring to a boil, drain and rinse
what is the procedure for preparing a white stock?
bones 3-4", rinse, place in stockpot, bring to a boil, then reduce to a simmer. skim. add mirepoix and herbs/spices. keep at a low simmer. keep water above bones. skim and strain through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth cool as quickly as possible
how long should a white stock simmer?
beef/veal - 6 to 8 hours, chicken - 3 to 4 hours, fish - 30 to 45 minutes
what is the procedure for preparing a brown stock?
cut bones. do not rinse or blanch. roast until well browned. put in stockpot, cover with water, bring to a simmer. drain and reserve fat from roasting pan. deglaze. add deglazing liquid and bits to stockpot. roast mirepoix. skim. add mirepoix, etc. continue as per white stock
what is a remouillage?
"rewetting" re-using bones for subsequent lower quality stock
what is a reduction?
concentrated stock by boiling/simmering
what is a glace?
a stock reduced until it coatst he back of a spoon. reduced by 3/4 or more
glace de viande
meat glaze made from brown stock
glace de volaille
glaze made from chicken stock
glace de poisson
glaze made from fish stock
what is fond?
what is a convenience base?
concentrated convenience products glazes are the original base
what is the function of a sauce?
adds moisture, flavor, richness, appearance, sheen, interest and appetite appeal
what is the structure of a sauce?
the body - liquid, a thickening agent, and seasoning and flavoring ingredients
what are leading sauces?
also known as mother sauces. white stock, brown stock, milk, tomato plus stock, clarified butter
what is a thickening agent?
a starch when starch plus heat plus liquid meat, gelatinization happens