1. How many species of reptiles are there?
  2. What continent does not have reptiles?
  3. What are the three different orders of reptiles?
    • Chelonia
    • Crocadilia
    • Squamata
  4. What reptiles are in the order Chelonia?
    • turtles
    • tortoises
    • terrapins
  5. What reptiles are in the order Crocadilia?
    • alligators
    • crocadiles
    • caimans
  6. What reptiles are in the order Squamata?
    • Serpentes:  snakes
    • Sauria:  lizards
  7. What is ectothermic?
    reptiles behaviorally modify body temperature - go under the light to get warm and move away from the light to get cool
  8. Do reptiles have lungs?
  9. What kind of metabolic rates do reptiles have?
    low metabolic rates
  10. What covers a reptiles body?
    scales or plates
  11. What is POTZ?
    preferred optimum temperature zone
  12. How warm should a tropical reptiles cage be?
    79 - 98 degrees
  13. How warm should a temperate reptiles cage be?
    75 - 85 degrees
  14. What are ways we can heat a reptiles cage?
    • heaters under the cage
    • ceramic or other heating pads
    • heat seat
    • reflector lamp
  15. When should we turn the reflector lamp off?
    at night - leave the red lamp on to keep cage warm
  16. What other animal are reptiles anatomically similar to?
  17. What kind of heart do reptiles have?
    3 chambered heart
  18. How many lungs do snakes have?
    1 lung
  19. Where are the testes in reptiles?
  20. Do reptiles have a cloaca?
  21. How do reptiles reproduce?
    • egg layers
    • some hatch eggs internally
  22. Are reptile young precocious or atricial?
  23. What are some ways we can get information on reptiles?
    • ARAV/herp societies
    • new textbooks
    • CE programs
    • internet
    • companies marketing products
  24. When do reptiles show signs of disease?
    late in the disease
  25. What do most reptiles carry that can make us sick?
  26. Do reptiles get sick from salmonella?
  27. What does salmonella affect?
    GI system
  28. Can we culture our reptiles to see if they carry salmonella?
    yes, but a negative culture doesn't necessarily mean they don't carry salmonella
  29. What types of people are more affected by salmonella?
    • infants
    • elderly
    • immunocompromised
  30. It is illegal to sell turtles under _____.  Why?
    • 4 inches
    • children were putting them in their mouths and getting sick
  31. What does the blood of reptiles look like?
    • all cells are nucleated
    • similar to birds
    • will see azurophils
    • blood values are much lower than in mammals
  32. What must be available if a practice is going to treat poisonous species?
  33. What do we need to wear if we are dealing with reptiles that are poisonous spitters?
    protective shields
  34. How do we chemically restrain a reptile?
    • can use ketamine/acepromazine - 55 - 80 mg/kg
    • telazol
    • etorphine
    • isoflurane
    • sevoflurane
  35. What do we do for a reptile when they come into the clinic for an exam?
    • review management of the animal with client
    • weigh
    • physical - always check mouth
    • fecal float/culture
    • trim nails
  36. What are some common problems we see in reptiles?
    • anorexia
    • respiratory disease
    • abscesses
    • metabolic bone disease
    • infectious stomatitis
    • parasites
    • gout
    • trauma
    • infectious diseases exist
  37. What kind of mg/kg do we use for drugs in reptiles as compared to mammals?
    less mg/kg than mammals due to lower metabolic rates
  38. What kind of drugs do we need to be aware of using with reptiles?
    nephrotoxic drugs
  39. What can cause a reptile to be anorexic?
    • may be disease related or due to poor husbandry
    • some reptiles fast periodically
  40. When do we need to intervene when a reptile is not eating?
    • when they lose >10% of body weight
    • force feed
  41. What are the signs of a respiratory disease in reptiles?
    • open mouth breathing
    • nasal discharge
  42. What can respiratory diseases be due to in reptiles?
    • bacteria
    • viruseds
    • parasites
  43. What can cause wounds in reptiles?
    • thermal burns
    • bites
    • fractures
  44. Are parasites common in reptiles?
    yes very common
  45. Which type of parasite is frequently found?
    • protozoa 
    • nematodes are also common
  46. Do reptiles get external parasites?
  47. Are the same drugs we use in mammals to treat parasites safe for reptiles?
    not all of them are safe
  48. What type of protozoa will we see in reptiles?
    • amoeba (treat with flagyl)
    • flagellates (treat with flagyl)
    • coccidia (treat with sulfas)
    • cryptosporidia (no treatment)
  49. What kind of nematodes will we see in reptiles?
    • ascarids
    • strongyles
    • lungworms
  50. How do we treat reptiles for nematodes?
    treat as for mammals but avoid ivermectins in chelonians
  51. Which external parasite is common in snakes?
  52. How do we treat reptiles for external parasites?
    treat with synthetic pyrethroids <0.03% then rinse off cage and reptile once it dries
  53. How do we give fluid therapy to reptiles?
    • 2 parts 2.5% dextrose in 0.45% NaCl plus 1 part normosol
    • PO is the easiest way but can give SQ, IV, or IO in proximal femur
  54. Do reptiles have an epiglottis?
  55. Where do we give IM injections in reptiles?
    • epaxial musculature in snakes
    • use front half of their body
    • in other reptiles use muscles in forelegs
  56. Where do we collect blood in reptiles?
    • right jugular vein in chelonians and lizards
    • ventral tail vein in most species
    • brachial vein in chelonians
  57. How do reptiles shed?
    • snakes shed in one piece
    • other reptiles shed piecemeal (pieces at a time)
  58. What is dysecdysis?  What is a retained spectacle?
    • difficulty shedding
    • retained spectacle:  shedding does not come off eye - just pull it off gently
  59. Which snakes are the most common for pets?
    • boids - pythons, boa constrictors
    • colubrids - corn, rat, king, garter snakes
  60. Which snakes are poisonous?
    vipers - rattlers, copperheads, cottonmouth
  61. What do we feed snakes?
    they are carnivorous so we feed them rodents, frogs, eggs, other snakes
  62. When do we feed snakes?
    • every 1 - 2 weeks - monthly 
    • some fast normally
  63. What should a snakes habitat look like?
    • temperature variables - POTZ at 75 - 85 degrees
    • provide hiding place
    • provide water for soaks
    • secure tops 
    • need suitable light for 10 - 12 hours a day
  64. How do we determine the sex of a snake?
    • dimorphism seen
    • probe for hemipenes:  males go >9 subcaudal scales, females go <4 subcaudal scales
  65. What can cause stomatitis in a snake?
  66. What does stomatitis look like in a snake?
    • ulcers, reddening, necrosis
    • gram negative bacteria
  67. What can dermatitis in a snake be due to?
    • trauma
    • parasites
    • bacteria
    • fungi
  68. What is inclusion body disease?
    • retrovirus seen in most boids
    • chronic regurgitation, CNS signs (stargazing)
    • euthanasia is the best option
  69. What is orphidian paramyxovirus?
    • see in most vipers
    • respiratory disease
    • nasal discharge and open mouth breathing
  70. What are the two viruses we see in reptiles and which reptile do we see it in?
    • inclusion body disease (retrovirus)
    • orphidian paramyxovirus
    • seen only in snakes
  71. Can eggs get stuck causing dystocia?
  72. How do we handle dystocia in reptiles?
    • lube
    • hormone injections
    • caesarian
  73. What can cause an intestinal obstruction in snakes?
    • tumor
    • abscess
    • large prey
  74. Do snakes get neoplasia?
    • yes, similar to those seen in mammals
    • it is a common finding
  75. What are saurians?
    • iguanas
    • monitor lizards
    • bearded dragons
    • chameleons
    • leopard geckos
    • geckos
  76. What are the two poisonous species of saurians?
    gila monster and beaded lizard
  77. What is the biggest saurian?
    komodo dragon - can weigh up to 300 pounds
  78. What kind of substrate should we use for saurians?  What should we avoid?
    • newspaper
    • carpet
    • alfalfa pellets
    • avoid gravel/cedar shaving
  79. What should the humidity be like in a tank for a saurian?
    50 - 70%
  80. What should the habitat be like for a saurian?
    • provide POTZ
    • limbs for arboreal species
    • hiding places
    • full spectrum light is best - unfiltered sunlight good, but may see behavioral changes
  81. What are the different carnivorous lizards?
    monitors and tegus
  82. What should we feed carnivorous lizards?
    feed prekilled prey - rodents preferable
  83. What can happen to a carnivorous lizard if we feed them dog and cat food for an extended period of time?
    can cause hypercalcemia
  84. Which lizards are insectivores?
    • chameleons
    • geckos
    • bearded dragons
  85. What do we feed insectivorous lizards?
    • well fed insects such as crickets, wax worms, caterpillars, grasshoppers
    • use a vitamin and mineral supplement to dust insects
  86. What are the different types of herbivorous lizards?
    • iguana
    • prehensile - tailed skink
    • chuckwalla
    • spiny-tailed lizard
  87. Which lizards are hind gut fermenters?
    herbivorous lizards
  88. How big can iguanas get?
    can read 6 feet
  89. What do we feed iguanas and how often?
    • greens, beans, sprouts, tofu, broccoli
    • use vitamin/mineral supplement
    • feed young daily and adults every 48 hours
  90. What happens to male iguanas when they mature?
    become very aggressive
  91. How can we sex lizards?
    femoral pores - more pronounced in males
  92. What kind of problems do iguanas get?
    • metabolic bone disease
    • abscesses
    • renal failure
    • parasites
    • egg bound
  93. What causes metabolic bone disease?
    diet lacks calcium
  94. How do we diagnose metabolic bone disease?
  95. What causes dystocia in lizards?
    • poor diet
    • anorexia
    • may start laying and then stop
  96. How do we correct dystocia in lizards?
    • provide correct substrate
    • some use Ca then oxytocin
    • warm her
    • may gently manipulate the egg 
    • may lube oviduct thru cloaca
    • oviductectomy or caesarian section
  97. Which reptiles get bladder stones?  How do we diagnose this and treat this?
    • lizards and some tortoises
    • radiographs
    • cystotomy
  98. How long can chelonians live?
    some live over 100 years
  99. How do we breed chelonians?
    • plastron concave in males
    • need to be healthy
    • need to have correct substrate
  100. What do we feed tortoises?
    • they are herbivores
    • dark greens, grasses, broccli, trout chow, rab pellets
  101. What do we feed terrapins?
    • they are carnivores
    • fish, insects, shrimp
    • may only eat in the water
    • as they age some become herbivores
  102. What positions we do take radiographs for turtles?  What do we look for?
    • AP and lateral
    • eggs, masses, or lung disease
  103. What are some common problems with chelonians?
    • respiratory disease
    • cracked shell
    • ulcerative shell disease
    • soft shell
    • bladder stones in desert tortoises
  104. Are respiratory diseases common in turtles?
  105. What are the clinical signs of a respiratory disease in turtles?
    • nasal/ocular discharge
    • aural abscess
    • open mouth breathing
    • abnormal swimming
  106. What are the clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency in turtles?
    • conjunctivitis
    • blepharitis
    • swelling around eye
    • secondary infections
    • may resemble an URI
  107. Which turtles get vitamin A deficiencies?
    on high protein, vitamin A deficient diets
  108. What are the clinical signs of dystocia in turtles?
    • anorexia
    • lethargy
    • straining
    • blood from vent
    • eggs on radiographs
    • treatment: laparotomy
  109. What is ulcerative shell disease?
    • on plastron
    • bacterial
    • debride
    • antibiotics to treat
    • improve water quality
  110. What causes a soft shell in turtles?
    • metabolic bone disease
    • deformed or soft shell
    • more in aquatic species of turtles
  111. What do crocadilians eat?
    • they are carnivorous
    • feed rodents, fish, and birds
  112. What kind of habitat do we provide crocodilians?
    • require water - filtration required and cleaned frequently
    • need area to get out of water
    • unfilitered light
  113. What is the main dietary problem seen in crocodilians?
    • steatitis - yellow fat disease caused by vitamin E deficiency
    • caused by feeding frozen fish
    • see lethargy and death
    • fat is yellow and firm
Card Set
Exotic Animals Final