Neuro Exam 4.13

  1. Memory:
    the processes or mechanisms by which we permanently store that which we have been exposed to or learn
  2. Psychologically, how can memory/learning be explained?
    • conditioned responses (unpleasant odors)
    • repetitive learning
    • aversion learning
    • conceptual learning
    • integration learning
  3. Repetitive learning:
    going over and over the info again and again
  4. aversion learning:
    • used w/ smoking or dieting
    • avoiding an activity
    • i.e., rubber band snaps if you cuss
    • negative way usually but may be seen in therapy
  5. Conceptual learning:
    the big picture
  6. integration learning:
    • association
    • putting things together
  7. How does physiology explain how memory is stored in the CNS?
    • only a very small portion of info is stored and retained; only if important to us
    • we constantly process our environment, but we don't usually remember all of it
    • there are many parts of the brain that process info
  8. What are the 2 most important parts of the brain that process info?
    • amygdaloid nuclear process
    • hippocampus
  9. Describe the amygdala and hippocampus:
    • bilateral structures
    • all experiences go through here and are processed for retention
    • form neural circuits to other parts of the brain (to and from)
  10. Where are the amygdala and hippocampus?
    deep in temporal brain
  11. Memory trace:
    • neural circuit, that connects a sensory event w/ a learned behavioral response, is altered in some way to support learning
    • part of conscious memory
  12. What is an example of memory trace?
    Dr. Garrison getting pulled over by a cop; he may not remember what other cars are around him, but he remembers the cop
  13. Memory consolidations:
    • occurs if the experience is somewhat permanently retained
    • part of conscious memory
  14. What is an example of memory consolidations?
    Dr. Garrison retelling his story numerous times to faculty and students
  15. How long does memory consolidation take?
    can occur quickly or take long periods of time
  16. What variables influence consolidation? (how quickly, or long, or degree to which consolidations takes place)
    • Catecholamine (adrenaline) levels in the body
    • motivation
    • physiological states
    • sleep deprivation
  17. When do you have high adrenaline levels?
    important events that you're very excited about (or dangerous events --car accident)
  18. Are you more likely to remember something when you have high or low adrenaline levels?
  19. High levels help you:
    remember, low levels don't
  20. What type of learning is motivation?
    context learning
  21. Do you learn better when motivated or not motivated?
    • motivated
    • when you are interested in what you're learning
  22. Motivation can be linked to:
    importance or interest
  23. How does motivation apply to pts?
    if you aren't doing something for pts that applies to them, then they won't learn as well
  24. What is our main way of learning?
    through motivation (context learning)
  25. How do physiological states influence learning?
    enhances poor memory consolidation
  26. What physiological states lead to poor memory consolidation?
    • shock (decreased BP means blood isn't doing job as well and isn't feeding the brain)
    • trauma
    • emotional trauma
  27. If you see something very traumatic and you aren't use to trauma, you may:
    be in shock so it is not good for you to be an eye-witness because your memory is not accurate
  28. How does sleep deprivation effect learning?
    • adverse affects b/c you don't go through the consolidation process
    • pulling all-nighters for tests isn't good
  29. All physiological states preclude efficient:
    long-term potentiation and thus consolidation
  30. Trace memory -> consolidation memory -> anatomical parts ->
    molecular level
  31. What does LTP stand for?
    long-term potentiation
  32. Long-term potentiation:
    • learn something over and over
    • occurs at the cellular level involving cell membrane
    • classical explanation of molecular basis of memory
  33. What type of process is long-term potentiation?
  34. Original studies and most current studies of LTP use what?
    • neurons (synapses) in the hippocampus
    • dissect neurons of hippocampus and put them in petri dishes or do fMRI
  35. Where is memory retained?
    synapses of brain
  36. Extensive research in animals shows that following a heavy train of stimulation (real fast stimulation), the postsynaptic excitatory potentials have:
    an increase in amplitude which can last for varying periods of time (days or weeks)
  37. Hebbian Processing:
    • occurs at molecular level
    • following heavy train of stimulation, the postsynaptic excitatory potentials have an increase in amplitude which can last for varying periods of time
  38. If the postsynaptic amplitude is increased for weeks, then the neuron is:
  39. If the postsynaptic amplitude is increased for weeks, how is the neuron different?
    • increase firing of postsynaptic neuron due to variety of stimuli (glutamate is the NT)
    • increased firing rate associated w/ increased activation of glutamate receptors
    • ligand gated channels open resulting in an influx of Ca
    • increased Ca enhances enzymatic cascades in postsynaptic cell (modulates nature of postsynaptic membrane receptrs and makes them more sensitive)
    • nitic oxide is formed and diffuses back across synapse to increase effectiveness of presynaptic membrane (making glutamate release easier)
  40. So Ca changes receptors on:
    postsynaptic cells
  41. Nitric Oxide diffuses back to presynaptic cell and helps:
    release glutamate
  42. What is LTD?
    long-term depression
  43. Is long-term depression similar to long-term potentiation?
    similar, but w/ an opposite/reverse effect (you lose memory!)
  44. What do biochemical changes do to long-term depression?
    decrease effectiveness of synapses (overtime we forget things)
  45. What anatomical changes occur in LTP?
    • increase in # and types of synapses and increase in function; associated w/ increase in activity
    • neurons like to talk to each other
    • dendritic tree forms new spines
    • axons form collaterals
  46. What principle can be applied to memory?
    • use it or lose it
    • CNS needs to be challenged
  47. What anatomical changes occur in LTD?
    • membranes lose sensitivity and proper synapses are not in place
    • dendritic spines wither away when not used reducing the number of synapses
  48. What are the classification of memory?
    • declarative memory
    • non-declarative memory
  49. Declarative memory:
    • conscious, explicit, cognitive
    • remembering facts, events, concepts, and locations
  50. Are declarative memories easily verbalized?
  51. What do declarative memories require during recall?
    attention --not reflexive, you have to think about it
  52. How many stages are involved with declarative memory?
  53. What is the 1st stage of declarative memory?
    • immediate memory (1-2 sec) similar to trace memory
    • used to plan a response to some stimulus
    • no long term memory here (unless very important)
  54. What is the 2nd stage of declarative memory?
    • short-term memory/working memory/primary memory
    • may last only minutes or days unless reinforced (doesn't last forever)
  55. Which cortex is involved w/ the 2nd stage of declarative memory?
    pre-frontal cortex -primary intellectual area (cognition, intellect, IQ)
  56. Which association areas are involved w/ the 2nd stage of declarative memory?
    • areas of primary functional cortical areas (association areas of all cortices)
    • Ex: visual association area stores visual memory
  57. What is the 3rd stage of declarative memory?
    • long-term memory/remote memory
    • involves short-term memory which has been permanently consolidated and stored in the area which 1st processed it
  58. Where are 3rd stage declarative memories stored?
    hippocampus or amygdala
  59. Where are visual or auditory stimuli ultimately processed?
    • through hippocampus and association area
    • then if consolidated and stored permanently, then it is stored in primary cortical area
    • superior temporal gyrus - if you heard a great song
  60. Where is the memory of smell stored?
    olfactory cortex
  61. What are the special types of declarative memory?
    • episodic
    • semantic
  62. Episodic memory:
    • people remember their own experiences as they happened in a specific place and time in their own history (ex: can't tell the story unless they go through the whole process)
    • type of long-term memory
  63. Semantic memory:
    • form which deals w/ general knowledge
    • learning in school
    • provides database required for thinking/knowledge base allows you to think and make decisions
    • type of long term memory
  64. If it is super specific memory, then it is:
    semantic memory (very explicit info)
  65. Where do you 1st process a stimuli?
    in cerebral cortex
  66. After processed in cerebral cortex info goes to:
    hippocampus or amygdala
  67. From hippocampus/amygdala to be stored in:
    pre-frontal cortex
  68. After stored in pre-frontal cortex it goes through:
    consolidation process (stored where 1st processed)
  69. After consolidation process it is put:
    in long-term memory in either hippocampus or area of brain that 1st processed it
  70. Non-declarative memory:
    implicity memory/procedural/unconcscious/skill and habit memory
  71. In non-declarative memory, the person has no previous awareness of:
    memory, can't describe learned info except through behavior and can't necessarily remember how, when, or where the learning occured
  72. What is an example of non-declarative memory?
    • may remember to tie shoes, but don't remember exactly how you learned
    • typing on keyboard, but can't remember even what year you learned how to type
    • learning to play piano over time
  73. Where are non-declarative memories stored?
    • cerebellum, basal ganglia, and amygdala
    • stored in central pattern generators b/c these are learned motor activities
  74. What is the biggest problem with memory?
  75. Amnesia:
    loss of long term memory
  76. Retrograde amnesia:
    loss of memory prior to trauma or disease
  77. Anterograde amnesia:
    loss of memory of events which follow trauma or disease
  78. When does anterograde amnesia present?
    amygdala and hippocampus are damaged and not processing info
  79. Which type of memory is involved in amnesia?
    • both declarative and nondeclarative memory
    • may forget how to tie your shoe or a birthday
  80. When is the Marine corps birthday?
    Nov. 10th 1775
Card Set
Neuro Exam 4.13
review for neuro part 13 for exam 4