Nutrition Final Part II

  1. Food labels are regulated by what 2 organizations? Which is mandatory and which is optional?
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - manditory
    • Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) - optional
  2. Explain the 95% rule in pet food labeling
    • Applies to products containing meat, poultry or fish.
    • If they use beef, tuna etc in the name of the food, the food must have 95% of the product must be the named ingredient not counting water.
    • Counting the added water, the named ingredient must still comprise 70% of the product.
    • If the food has two listed ingredients, the two must comprise 95% of the total weight and the 1st ingredient must be the one with high predominance in the product.
  3. Explain the 25% rule AKA
    • Dinner, platter, entree, nuggets, receipe and formula
    • Name ingredient must comprise 25% (not counting water) but less than 95%
    • Counting water the named ingredients must comprise 10% of the product.
    • 2 or more ingredients (Chicken n' fish dinner) must have 25% chicken and fish combined and at least 3% fish.
  4. Explain the 3% rule or "with" rule
    Allows the use of the term with as part of the product name if the product contains at least 3% of the named ingredient is contained.
  5. Explain the "flavor" rule
    Specific % is not required, but flavor must be detected. Tested utilizing animals trained to prefer specific flavors. The word flavor must be the same size type as the other words on the label.
  6. What are "digests" with respect to flavor?
    Materials treated with heat, enzymes and/or acids to form concentrated natural flavors
  7. Net Quantity Statement refers to what?
    How much product is in the container.
  8. What must be included on the label
    Manufacturer's name and phone number at the least
  9. Define meat
    clean flesh of slaughtered mammals and is limited to striated muscle with or without the accompanying or overlaying fat and portions of skin, sinew, nerve and blood vessels which normally accompany the skin.
  10. Define meat meal
    Product from mammal tissue, exclusive of any blood, hair horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents. 
  11. Which is better and why?
    Corn listed as the 1st ingredient and meat meal list second
    meat listed as the 1st ingredient
    • Corn listed as the 1st ingrediant because meat is very high in moisture (appr 75% water). On the other hand, water and fat are removed from meat meal, so it is only 10% moisture (what's left is mostly protein and minerals).
    • comparing both products on a dry matter basis ("remove" the water), one could see that the first product had more animal-source protein from meat meal than the first product had from meat, even though the ingredient list suggests otherwise.
  12. Define Guaranteed Analysis 
    • the minimum percentages of crude protein and crude fat, and the maximum percentages of crude fiber and moisture.
    • The "crude" refers to the specific method of testing the product, not to the quality of the nutrient itself.
  13. What are the guarantees for 
    Cats Food:
    Dogs Food: 
    • Cat foods:  taurine and magnesium.
    • Dog foods: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and linoleic acid.
  14. A "complete and balanced" pet food must be substantiated for nutritional adequacy by one of two means.
    • 1. for the pet food to contain ingredients formulated to provide levels of nutrients that meet an established profile. Presently, the AAFCO Dog or Cat Food Nutrient Profiles are used.
    • 2. the product is tested using the appropriate AAFCO Feeding Trial Protocol(s). This means that the product, or "lead" member of a "family" of products, has been fed to dogs or cats under strict guidelines and found to provide proper nutrition. These products should bear the nutritional adequacy statement "Animal feeding tests using AAFCO procedures substantiate that (name of product) provides complete and balanced nutrition."
  15. What requirement does a product labeled for senior diet mean?
    a "senior" diet must meet the requirements for adult maintenance, but no more.
  16. A product that does not meet the maintenance or growth methods for substantiation of nutritional adequacy must state that "this product is intended for intermittent or supplemental feeding only," What are the exceptions?
    unless the product is conspicuously identified as a “snack,” “treat.” or “supplement.”
  17. Define the term natural
    lacks artificial flavors, colors, or preservatives in the product.
  18. Are premium, ultra premium or gourmet better?
    Products labeled as premium or gourmet are not required to contain any different or higher quality ingredients, nor are they held up to any higher nutritional standards than are any other complete and balanced products.
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    Body Score 1
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    Body score 3
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    Body Score 5
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    Body Score 7
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    Body Score 9
  24. What is the ideal body condition for a dog?
    4 - 5
  25. What is the ideal body condition for a cat?
  26. List the 5 functions of the digestive system
    • Prehension
    • Mastication
    • Digestion
    • Absorption of nutrients
    • Elimination of waste
  27. List the parts of the Digestive System
    • Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small Intestine
    • Large Intestine
    • Accessory Glands (Salivary glands, Liver & Pancreas)
  28. Name the 3 Accessory Glands
    • Salivary glands
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
  29. Canine dental formula
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 2/3)
  30. Cat Dental formula
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 3/2, M 1/1)
  31. Cattle Dental formula 
    2(I 0/0, C 0/1, P 3/3, M 3/3)
  32. Horse dental formula
    2(I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/4, M 3/3)
  33. What is the function of tonsils?
    Three types?
    • Fight off infection
    • Palatine, Lingual, Pharyngeal
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    Cardiac Sphincter
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    Pyloric part of stomach
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    Angular Notch
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    Pyloric Sphincter
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  43. Describe the ruminant stomach
    • Rumen - holding/fermenting vat Disease - Ruminal Tymphany
    • Reticulum - AKA honeycomb Disease - Hardware disease
    • Omasum - Serves to grind - AKA Book Stomach
    • Abomasum - True Stomach where digestion starts Problem with twisted abomasum
  44. Function of the salivary gland
    List the 3 pairs
    • Moistens food
    • Parotid, Mandibular, Submandibular
  45. Function of the pancreas
    To release hormones and enzymes
  46. List hormones secreted by the Islet of Langerhans and what they do
    • Alpha cells - glucagon which elevates blood sugar
    • Beta cells - secrete insulin reduces blood sugar
    • Delta cells - secrete somatostatin inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
  47. List 4 Function of the liver
    • Detoxifies toxins
    • Temporary storage of fatty acids 
    • Secretion of bile
    • Converts sugars into glycogen
  48. How do you assess hydration?
    • skin turgidity, eyes sunken, recessed (4, 7, 10%)
    • Moisture of mucous membranes
    • Heart rate
    • Peripheral pulse
  49. How do you replace fluid in a dehydrated animal?
    • Intravenous
    • Subcutaneous
    • Per Os
  50. 4 Functions of Water
    • A. Regulate body temperature
    • B. Maintain electrolyte concentrations (sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium
    • C. Medium for chemical reactions – Water is the #1 solvent in the world
    • D. Lubricate body tissues especially joints
  51. Why does a dog on IV fluid they may still exhibit a need for water.
    Thirst is stimulated by Hypothalamas when there is a lack of water in stomach (gastric factor) which an IV doesn't satisfy.
  52. 50# dog with 5% dehydration
    1250 mL
  53. 800# horse with 5% dehydration
    18.2 L
  54. Calories provide
    • utilization of all nutrients
    • Heat to maintain body temperature.
  55. Define Gross Energy
    The heat given off when food is completely burned (using a Bomb Calorimeter) to its oxidation products: carbon dioxide, water and other gases.
  56. Define Digestible Energy
    Determined by an animal feeding trial. Food consumption and fecal excretion are measured and a gross energy determination of both food and feces is made. The D.E. value is calculated by subtracting fecal energy output from food energy input
  57. Define Metabolized Energy
    Determined by a feeding trial. This differs from D.E. in that urine output is also subtracted from the food energy input.
  58. Define Net Energy
    determined by measuring body heat losses and subtracting it from the Metabolized Energy value
  59. Name 10 essential proteins needed by dogs:
    Arginine, Leucine, Phenylalanine, Valine, Histadine, Lysine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, and Threonine.
  60. What additional essential protein is needed by cats?
  61. Define Crude Protein 
    the NITROGEN (found in protein and amino acids) in a food source. 
  62. What is the formula for crude protein?
    % Nitrogen X 6.25 
  63. Define Biological Value
    Estimate of PROTEIN QUALITY. The BV reflects the number and amount of essential amino acids the food contains. BV is written as a %.  It equals the percentage of a nutrient that is absorbed and utilized by the body

    Egg – 100%          Milk -     92%        Liver – 79%         Wheat- 48%       Corn – 45%
  64. Protein is converted to_______. Is is utilized and _________ is released as a by-product. That by product is converted into ______ in the _____ and then is excreted by the ____
    Urea (waste) is the ______ end product of protein metabolism
    • Amino Acids
    • Ammonia (NH4)
    • Urea liver kidneys 
    • nitrogen
  65. Protein restriction results in 
    • retarded growth
    • inadequate tissue repair
    • energy shortage
  66. How do we test for Protein Metabolism?
    BUN – Blood Urea Nitrogen Test for kidney evaluation.
  67. Normal Values – BUN –
    15-20 mg/dl for most species
  68. Classification of Carbohydrates
    • 1. Simple Sugars – one molecule – easily broken down. Sugars that are easily broken down to be absorbed by the body. Monosaccharides Example: Glucose & Fructose.
    • 2.   Complex Sugars – Formed by combining 2 molecules of monosaccharides Dissacarrides. Example Sucrose, Maltose & Lactose. 
    • 3.   Trisaccharides – Consists of 1 molecule each of Glucose, galactose and fructose. Example: Raffinose
    • 4.   Polysaccharides – Made up of numerous molecules of simple sugars. Example: Dextrin, starch, cellulose, glycogen
  69. Some digestion of carbohydrates occurs in the mouth by the enzyme _____. The primary site of digestion occurs in the ____.
    Starch, glycogen and disaccharides are broken down to _________. Must be
    broken down to before it can be absorbed.
    • Salivary amylase
    • intestine
    • monosaccharides
  70. Metabolism of most carbohydrates in pet rations are absorbed as _____. Must be broken down to _____.
    • glucose
    • glucose
  71. Diabetes:
    8 Characteristics:
    Affects: (4)
    4 Symptoms: 
    Diagnosis (2)
    Insulin Therapy:
    • Characteristics: Hyperglycemia; Obesity; Genetic Predisposition; Poor diet; Hormonal abnormals; Pharmaceuticals; Gender
    • Affects: Neutered, Middle aged, Sedentary, Obese
    • Symptoms: 1) Extreme weight loss 2) Polyuria, 3) Polydipsia, 4) Polyphagia
    • Diagnosis: Glucosuria – persistent or stress induced; Hyperglycemia – hematologic analysis
    • Treatment: Diet, Exercise, Insulin Therapy
    • Exercise: Toys, Laser pointer, Virtual fishbowl
    • Insulin Therapy: PZI; Glargine; Detemir
    • Maintenance: Feeding schedules – small meals 4X daily; Monitor water intake; Blood glucose concentrations –target 83-133 mg/dl; Clinical; Home monitoring
  72. Define Gluconeogensis
    If your body can’t get any glucose it will start producing glucose from proteins and fats.
  73. The main fiber carbohydrates are:
    • 1. Cellulose 
    • 2. Hemicellulose
    • 3. Pectin
    • 4. Lignin
  74. Benefits of Fiber
    • Prevention of constipation
    • Promote colonic peristalsis 
    • Water absorbing properties
    • Increased fiber may reduce caloric intake while giving a full feeling
  75. Four main functions of fat
    • 1. Supply energy provides more energy than protein or carbs p/gm of food
    • 2. Palatability
    • 3. Essential fatty acids – necessary for skin and coat
    • 4. Carry fat soluble vitamins (A, E, D & K)
  76. 3 Essential Fatty Acids 
    • 1. Linoleic Acid 
    • 2. Linolenic Acid 
    • 3. Arachidonic Acid 
  77. Cats have dietary essential fatty acid requirements for 
    Arachidonic Acid which is of animal origin
  78. Pancreatitis
    Lab Analysis:
    Dietary Management:
    • Symptoms: 1. Abdominal pain; 2. Vomiting; 3. Elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase); 4. Diarrhea – not a lot of this
    • Causes: 1. Hyperlipemia; 2. Obesity; 3.   
    • Infectious Disease – pancreatitis is secondary disease (parvo, distemper); 4. Trauma – hit by car
    • Lab Analysis: Elevated Lipase and amylase
    • Treatment: 1. Nothing per os (NPO); 2. Intravenous fluids; 3. Anti-inflammatory drugs
    • Dietary Management: Diet low in fat; No table food.
  79. 4 Fat soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  80. 2 Functions of Vitamin D
    Calcium metabolism and synthesize UV rays from the sun
  81. Vitamin A deficiency causes
    night blindness
  82. Vitamin A is found in 
    beta-carotene which is yellow pigment in plants
  83. Other name for Vitamin E
  84. Vitamin E deficiency in dogs is characterized by 
    Brown Bowel Syndrome
  85. What vitamin is essential for clotting mechanism?
  86. Cholecalciferol is the proper name for 
    Vitamin D
  87. Explain Sweet Clover
    When sweet clover hay is cut, if not allowed to dry, the hay becomes moldy and produces a toxin called coumarin or dicoumarol. Coumarin blocks the vitamin K in production of prothrombin. 
  88. Bracken fern causes horses to be unable to absorb
  89. What deficiency causes “Perosis” in poultry
  90. Vitamin A is stored in the 
  91. Most common Vitamin B6
  92. Black tongue is a deficiency of what vitamin?
  93. Curled Toe Paralysis is a deficiency of what vitamin?
    RIBOFLAVIN (Vit B2) 
  94. Name 3 trace minerals and give information on the mineral
    • Cobalt is a component in Vitamin B12
    • Sulphur – Occurs in amino acids, cystine and methionine 
    • Silicon – Important to bone mineralization
  95. Function of Iodine
    synthesis of two hormones produced by the thyroid gland.  These hormones are necessary for the regulation of cell oxidation
  96. Mulberry Heart Disease is a deficiency of what 
  97. Goiter is a deficiency of
  98. Hepatosis dietetica is a deficiency of
  99. Enzootic Ataxia is a deficiency of
  100. Osteomalacia is a deficiency of
  101. White Muscle Disease is a deficiency of
  102. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a deficiency of
  103. Grass Tetany is a deficiency of
  104. Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy is a deficiency of
  105. What breed is associated with Copper Storage Disease
    Bedlington Terrier
  106. 2 species that are affected with Magnesium deficiency
    Cats and Cows
  107. Symptoms of sodium deficiency
    Fatigue, exhaustion, inability to maintain water balance, decreased water intake, retarded growth, dryness of skin and loss of hair
  108. What is irons main function?
  109. 2 anemias associated with iron
    Hemolytic, Aplastic
  110. List and explain 2 disease associated with bones
    • Rickets - Disease of young growing animals caused by a deficiency in phosphorus and Vitamin D. Failure of the bones to calcify 
    • Canine Hip Dysplasia – genetic problem
    • manifested by a small acetabulum, a misshapen femoral head. Usually causes lameness and pain in the joint
  111. Function of Calcium & Phosphorus 
    • normal bone development
    • rigidity for bones and teeth
    • aid in blood coagulation
    • necessary for nerve excitability
  112. Function of Magnesium
    Used in enzymatic reactions, especially the use of amino acids and fatty acids for energy
  113. Function of SODIUM
    • Sodium aids in the transfer of nutrients and the removal of waste from the cells.
    • Produces bile needed in the digestion of fats and carbohydrates.
  114. Function of Chloride
    Needed for the formation of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juices, which is used to digest protein. 
  115. Function of Potassium
    needed for proper enzyme, muscle, nerve function, fluid balance and appetite
  116. zinc improves the 
    immune system
  117. Function of Manganese
    • essential for normal reproduction.
    • glucose utilization and 
    • involved in the production of insulin and prothrombin. 
  118. Function of Copper
    • Used for mobilizing iron for hemoglobin synthesis
    • maturation of collagen, pigmentation of hair, neural transmission.
  119. The function of selenium is associated with ____________ they go hand in hand
    Vitamin E
  120. Most common disease associated with selenium deficiency is in 
    calves, lambs and foals
  121. 2 diseases associated with selenium diseases in pigs are
    • Mulberry Heart Disease 
    • Hepatosis dietetica
  122. Explain PTH, Calcitonin and Vitamin D
    • Parathyroid Hormone - PTH, necessary for moving calcium from bone. Prevents having continual bone growth.
    • Calcitonin - inhibits bone resorption.
    • Vitamin D - Promotes intestinal calcium 
  123. Iron is necessary for __________ production and is beneficial in conditions such as ___________.
    • hemoglobin
    • anemia
  124. __________ is important to birds
    Beta carotene
  125. Define Ash
    required mineral
  126. Intake of water comes from 
    • Pet food
    • Free choice water 
    • Metabolized water
  127. How is energy measured
    in calories
  128. 2 surgeries on video
    • Esophagostomy
    • Nasoesophageal tube
  129. Dwarfism is caused by 
    Copper Deficiency 
  130. Large Calorie
    Amt of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree celcius
  131. Small Calorie
    Amt of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gm of water 1 degree celcius
  132. Define Protein
    Amino acids joined by peptide linkage
  133. Inflammation of fatty tissue
Card Set
Nutrition Final Part II
Poisonous plants, nutrition final