Final Exam

  1. Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ______?
  2. Virtually all of the protein and amino acid based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ______?
    Second Messenger
  3. The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on what?
    The presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
  4. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because _______?
    It is only a hormone storage area that recieves hormones from the hypothalamus for release
  5. How do steroid hormones exert their action?
    By entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
  6. Leptin is secreted by what?
  7. What is the major target of growth hormones?
    Bones and Skeletal Muscle
  8. What is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood?
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  9. What regulates ACTH secretion?
    the hypothalamic regulatory hormone
  10. What is an example of a suspension?
  11. Why is the left ventricular wall of the heart thicker than the right wall?
    To pump blood out with a greater pressure
  12. If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would result in what?
    A decreased delivery of oxygen
  13. What is the term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart and may be caused by the trasient spasm of coronary arteries?
    Angina Pectoris
  14. The statement "the entire heart contracts as a unit or it doesnt contract at all" refers to what part of the heart?
    myocardial cells
  15. What happens during the contraction of the heart muscle cells?
    Some calcium enters the cell from the extracellular space and triggers the release of larger amounts of calcium from the intracellular stores.
  16. What is the difference between skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle?
    Cardiac muscle has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium
  17. The condition where fluid compresses the heart and limits its ability to contact is known as?
    Cardiac Tamponade
  18. What are the three major factors influencing blood pressure?
    • -blood volume
    • -cardiac output
    • -PVR
  19. Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of what vessel?
  20. What causes an increase in blood flow to the skin?
    and increase in enviornmental temperature
  21. Shock resulting from large scale loss of blood or after severe vomiting or diarrhea is what type of shock?
    Hypovolemic Shock
  22. What can influence arterial pulse rate?
    • -emotions
    • -activity
    • -postural changes
  23. What factors aid in venous return?
    • -pressure changes in the thorax
    • -venous valves
    • -activity of skeletal muscle
  24. Small organs associated with Lymphatic vessels are termed?
    Lymph nodes
  25. When is the thymus most active?
    During Childhood
  26. Are lymphatic capillaries more permeable or less permeable than blood capillaries?
    more permeable
  27. The antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are release by _____?
    plasma cells
  28. what type of lymphocyte produces plasma cells?
    B cells
  29. What are the components of lymph?
    • water
    • ions
    • plasma protein
  30. What are the functions of the Lymphatic System?
    • Carry out immune responses
    • Drain excess interstitial fluid
    • Transport dietary fats
  31. What are the functions of lymph nodes?
    • produce lymphoid cells and house WBC
    • serve as antigen surveillance areas
    • filter lymph and activate immune system
  32. Antibodies are composed of what?
    Light and Heavy polypeptide chains
  33. Where do B lymphocytes develop immunocompetency?
    bone marrow
  34. the process where by neutophils and other WBC are attrached to an inflammatory site is known as?
  35. Where are the mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity located?
    In the walls of the tracts organs
  36. What is the function of the hepatic portal circulation?
    to collect absorbed nutrients for the metabolic processing or storage
  37. The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called?
  38. When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbs, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called?
    chemical digestion
  39. what are the sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place?
  40. What hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
  41. The absorpative effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. What is responsible for completing this task?
    Villi and microvilli
  42. In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food the stomach also does what?
    initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
  43. Where is Chyme created?
    The stomach
  44. Pendular movements of the GI tract
  45. What secreted pepsinogen and digestive enzymes?
    Cheif cells in the stomach
  46. What is the function of goblet cells?
    produce mucus that protect parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
  47. A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsificationagents, and phospholipids?
  48. The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells
  49. What is the stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones?
  50. What is the major role of leptin?
    protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation
  51. The sum of biochemical reactions involved in building breakdown molecules is known as?
  52. The term basal metabolic rate reflects what?
    energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
  53. What is the correct pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
    glycolysis, Kreb cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
  54. A process that breaks down complex structures to simpler ones is known as?
  55. What is the primary function of cellular respiration ?
    break down food molecules and generate ATP
  56. The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as?
  57. The process in which glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors?
  58. A catabolic reaction based on the conversion of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid?
  59. What nutrient yields the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?
  60. What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?
  61. The urinary bladder is composed of what type of epithelium?
    transitional epithelium
  62. What stimulates the kidneys to produce renin?
    a decrease in blood pressure
  63. What is the renal corpuscle made up of?
    The bowman's capsule/ Glomerulus
  64. What is the mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules?
  65. Why does alcohol act as a diuretic?
    Because it inhibits the release of ADH
  66. What is the function of Angeotensin II?
    to constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
  67. What hormone is responsible for facilitative water reabsorption?
  68. The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability of ______?
    nephron loop
  69. What is heartburn and what causes it?
    Heartburn is the rising of acidic contents with in the esophagus caused by a decreased metabolism
  70. What happens to pyruvic acid if oxygen is not present in sufficient quantities to support electron transport system?
    It produces large quantities of lactic acid
  71. How filtration works in the glomerular capillaries?
    Starts in glomulerus via afferent and filters out of efferent to proximal collecting ducts
  72. This interfers with the vital replication of cells?
  73. Activated T cells and macrophages release _________ to mobilize cells and attract other leukocytes into the area 
  74. The AIDS virus recognizes what?
    CD4 proteins
  75. What are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells?
    Cytotoxic T cells
  76. Phagocyte mobilization involves the migration of what to inflammed areas?
    neutrophils and macrophages
Card Set
Final Exam
Anatomy and Physiology II Final Exam