1. Food is needed for
    • Energy (respiration)
    • Growth of new cells (mitosis)
    • Repair of existing cells

    • Also supplies materials and energy for :
    • Metabolism
    • Continuity
  2. What is food made up
    • 6 chemical elements (CHONPS)
    • Salts (SMP)
    • Trace elements (ICZ)
  3. What are biomolecules
    Biomolecules are small substances that make up living things
  4. List of biomolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins and Minerals
  5. Carbohydrates: elements and ratio
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen

  6. 3 types of carbohydrate
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
  7. What are monosacharrides
    Single sugar molecules

    Example: Glucose and fructose

    Source: fruit

    Metabolic role
  8. What are disaccharides
    Two sugar units

    Example: Lactose and maltose

    Source: dairy

    Metabolic role
  9. What are polysaccharides
    Many sugar units

    Example: Starch, cellulose and chitin

    Source: potatoes, cell wall, insect exoskeletons

    Structural role
  10. Lipids elements and ratio
    Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

    Not in fixed ratio
  11. Triglyceride is..
    A lipid unit with 3 fatty acids and one glycerol
  12. Phospholipid is
    Two fatty acids, phosphate and glycerol

    Found in cell membrane
  13. Proteins consist of
    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen

    Sometimes sulphur and phosphorous
  14. Sources of protein
    Lean meat, fish, eggs
  15. Protein chain
    Amino acid > peptide bond > polypeptide > protein
  16. Vitamins are
    • Small chemicals
    • Needed in small amounts
    • Cannot be produced
    • Involved in metabolic process
  17. Source and function of Vitamin C
    Source: citrus fruits

    Function: healthy skin, teeth, gums

    Water soluble
  18. Source and function of Vitamin B
    Source: cereal

    Function: metabolism

    Water soluble
  19. Source and function of Vitamin A
    Source: green veg/carrots

    Function: eyesight, night vision

    Fat soluble
  20. Source and function of Vitamin D
    Source: dairy, sunlight

    Function: bone development

    Fat soluble
  21. Vitamin deficiency C
    • Scurvy
    • Rotting teeth
    • Bleeding gums
  22. Vitamin deficiency D
    • Rickets
    • Brittle bones
    • Bowed legs
  23. Animal minerals
    Calcium, bone growth and development

    Iron, need to form haemoglobin
  24. Plant minerals
    Calcium, form cell wall

    Nitrogen, used to make proteins
  25. Anabolic reaction
    Small > big

    Energy required

    Example: photosynthesis and joining two strands of DNA
  26. Catabolic reaction
    Big > small

    Energy released

  27. Structural roles of carbohydrate
    Cellulose: used to form cell walls

    Chitin: insect exoskeletons
  28. Structural role of lipids
    Insulation and waterproofing
  29. Structural role of protein
    Myosin - fibre that builds muscles

    Keratin - makes hair and nails
  30. Metabolic roles of carbohydrates
    Glucose - energy
  31. Metabolic roles of lipids
  32. Metabolic roles of proteins
  33. Test for sugar
    Chemical: Benedicts reagent

    Heat: yes

    Colour change: blue to brick red
  34. To test for lipids
    Chemical: oil

    Heat: no

    Colour change: translucent spot
  35. To test for starch
    Chemical: iodine

    Heat: no

    Colour change: yellow to blue black
  36. To test for protein
    Chemical: sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate

    Heat: no

    Colour change: blue to purple
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