What different Sources of chemical exposure are there?
- 1) Environmental - either manmade-intentional or accidental or Natural
- 2) occupational
- 3) iatrogenic - drugs
- 4) self-administered
Name six different mechanisms of chemical toxicity.
- 1) Corrosive tissue damage
- - desiccation, protein denaturation, fat saponification
2) Inhibition of enzyme activity: cyanide and cytochrome oxidase
3) Alternate metabolic pathways
4) disturbances of homeostasis
How does air pollution injure the lungs?
- 1) Acute and chronic inflammation- direct cell injury
- 2) emphysema - enhanced proteolysis
- 3) Asthma
- 4) hypersensitivity pneumonitis
- 5) pneumoconiosis - progressive fibrotic scarring mediated by cytokines
- 6) neoplasia
What hazards are related to farming?
Organic dusts lead to hypersensitivity pneumonitis- moldy hay and bird droppings
pesticides- organophosphate and organochlorine( DDT)
What heavy metal toxic agents are there to be aware of ?
Mercury, lead, arsenic, iron
What are the major patterns of Adverse Drug reactions?
- 1) blood dyscrasias
- 2) skin eruptions
- 3) hepatic reactions
- 4) renal reactions
- 5) lung reactions
- 6) cardiac reactions
- 7) CNS reactions
- 8) systemic reactions including anaphylaxis, vasculitits, and hormonal effects
What kind of adverse drug reaction can occur from Chloramphenicol?
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic- may cause blood dycrasias
- it may be does related or from just one drop(idiosyncratic)
- can be pan or line specific- the cell lines it shuts down
Adverse drug reaction from penicillin?
Adverse drug reaction from tetracycline?
adverse drug reaction chlorpromazine?
cholestasis- block in flow in bile
Adverse drug reaction from halothane?
Massive hepatic necrosis
What syndromes are related to drugs of abuse?
- Pulmonary complications
- Infectious complications
- kidney disease
related to diluents, cutting agents, and needle sharing
What kind of injuries result from radiation?
- Direct effect on target molecules like DNA
- indirect effects like free radical intermediary
- cell death, mutations, developmental abnormalities
- tissues have differential radio-sensitivity
- fully oxygenated tissues will be affected more with the same amt of dose
What type of cells are most sensitive and have the fastest cell division from radiation sensitivity?
Concerning radiation sensitivity what tissue type is least sensitive and has slowest cell division?
What vitamin deficiency leads to night blindness, xerophthalmia(dry eye), keratomalacia(eye ulcer), and immune deficiency?
Vitamin deficiency with inadequate sun, liver and renal disease, Rickets, and osteomalacia?
Vit deficiency = neuromuscular defects from free radical scavengers?
Deficiency includes loss of gut flora, coumadin therapy,and bleeding because of effect on clotting factors?
Polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff
What deficiencies occur not only from diet but also from EtOH?
Thiamine(B1), Riboflavine (B2), Niacin, pyridoxine (B6), and Vit C
Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis; cracks lips, tongue, skin
Pellagra, dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia
can be caused by TB drug, similar effects to riboflavin and niacin deficiency?
Scurvy, weak CT, bleeding, fractures, gingival swelling, perio disease, poor wound healing