Path 2-3

  1. What different Sources of chemical exposure are there?
    • 1) Environmental - either manmade-intentional or accidental or Natural
    • 2) occupational
    • 3) iatrogenic - drugs
    • 4) self-administered
  2. Name six different mechanisms of chemical toxicity.
    • 1) Corrosive tissue damage
    • - desiccation, protein denaturation, fat saponification

    2) Inhibition of enzyme activity: cyanide and cytochrome oxidase

    3) Alternate metabolic pathways

    4) disturbances of homeostasis

    5) mutagenesis

    6) carinogenesis
  3. How does air pollution injure the lungs?
    • 1) Acute and chronic inflammation- direct cell injury
    • 2) emphysema - enhanced proteolysis
    • 3) Asthma
    • 4) hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    • 5) pneumoconiosis - progressive fibrotic scarring mediated by cytokines
    • 6) neoplasia
  4. What hazards are related to farming?
    Organic dusts lead to hypersensitivity pneumonitis- moldy hay and bird droppings

    pesticides- organophosphate and organochlorine( DDT)


  5. What heavy metal toxic agents are there to be aware of ?
    Mercury, lead, arsenic, iron
  6. What are the major patterns of Adverse Drug reactions?
    • 1) blood dyscrasias
    • 2) skin eruptions
    • 3) hepatic reactions
    • 4) renal reactions
    • 5) lung reactions
    • 6) cardiac reactions
    • 7) CNS reactions
    • 8) systemic reactions including anaphylaxis, vasculitits, and hormonal effects
  7. What kind of adverse drug reaction can occur from Chloramphenicol?
    Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic- may cause blood dycrasias

    • it may be does related or from just one drop(idiosyncratic)
    • can be pan or line specific- the cell lines it shuts down
  8. Adverse drug reaction from penicillin?
    Skin eruptions
  9. Adverse drug reaction from tetracycline?
    fatty liver
  10. adverse drug reaction chlorpromazine?
    cholestasis- block in flow in bile
  11. Adverse drug reaction from halothane?
    Massive hepatic necrosis
  12. What syndromes are related to drugs of abuse?
    • Pulmonary complications
    • Granulomas
    • Infectious complications
    • kidney disease

    related to diluents, cutting agents, and needle sharing
  13. What kind of injuries result from radiation?
    • Direct effect on target molecules like DNA
    • indirect effects like free radical intermediary
    • cell death, mutations, developmental abnormalities

    • tissues have differential radio-sensitivity
    • fully oxygenated tissues will be affected more with the same amt of dose
  14. What type of cells are most sensitive and have the fastest cell division from radiation sensitivity?
  15. Concerning radiation sensitivity what tissue type is least sensitive and has slowest cell division?
    Neural tissue
  16. What vitamin deficiency leads to night blindness, xerophthalmia(dry eye), keratomalacia(eye ulcer), and immune deficiency?
    Vitamin A
  17. Vitamin deficiency with inadequate sun, liver and renal disease, Rickets, and osteomalacia?
  18. Vit deficiency = neuromuscular defects from free radical scavengers?
    Vit E
  19. Deficiency includes loss of gut flora, coumadin therapy,and bleeding because of effect on clotting factors?
    Vit K
  20. Polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy, Wernicke-Korsakoff
  21. What deficiencies occur not only from diet but also from EtOH?
    Thiamine(B1), Riboflavine (B2), Niacin, pyridoxine (B6), and Vit C
  22. Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis; cracks lips, tongue, skin
  23. Pellagra, dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia
  24. can be caused by TB drug, similar effects to riboflavin and niacin deficiency?
  25. Scurvy, weak CT, bleeding, fractures, gingival swelling, perio disease, poor wound healing
    Vit C
Card Set
Path 2-3
Chemical and physical agents, nutrition