Animal Waste

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  1. among the most important wastes are what?
    nitrogenous breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids
  2. what do some animals convert ammonia (NH3) to prior to excretion?
    less toxic compounds
  3. animals that excrete nitrogenous wastes as ammonia need a lot of what?
    • water
    • They release ammonia across the whole body surface or through gills
  4. The liver of mammals and most adult amphibians converts ammonia to less toxic what?
  5. the circulatory system carries urea to where? from there it is excreted
    to the kidneys
  6. excretion of urea requires what?
    Conversion of ammonia to urea is energetically expensive; excretion of urea requires less water than ammonia
  7. Insects, land snails, and many reptiles, including birds, mainly excrete what?
    uric acid
  8. uric acid is largely what in water and can be secreted as a what with little water loss
    • insoluble
    • paste
  9. Uric acid is more energetically expensive to produce than what?
  10. The kinds of nitrogenous wastes excreted depend on what?
    an animal’s evolutionary history and habitat
  11. The amount of nitrogenous waste is coupled to the animal’s what?
    energy budget
  12. Excretory systems regulate solute movement between what and what?
    internal fluids and the external environment
  13. Most excretory systems produce urine by refining a what?
    filtrate derived from body fluids
  14. what are the key functions of most excretory systems?
    • –Filtration
    • –Reabsorption
    • –Secretion
    • –Excretion
  15. what is filtration?
    pressure-filtering of body fluids
  16. what is reabsorption
    reclaiming valuable solutes
  17. what is secretion?
    adding toxins and other solutes from the body fluids to the filtrate
  18. what is excretion?
    removing the filtrate from the system
  19. what is a protonephridium? (flatworm excretion)
    a network of dead-end tubules connected to external openings
  20. what is a flame bulb? function? (flatworm excretion)
    • The smallest branches of the network (protonephridium) are capped by a cellular unit
    • These tubules excrete a dilute fluid and function in osmoregulation
  21. earthworms have what?
    Each segment of an earthworm has a pair of open-ended metanephridia
  22. metanephridia consist of what?
    consist of tubules that collect coelomic fluid and produce dilute urine for excretion
  23. Malpighian tubules do what?
    • In insects and other terrestrial arthropods, Malpighian tubules remove nitrogenous wastes from hemolymph and function in osmoregulation
    • Insects produce a relatively dry waste matter, an important adaptation to terrestrial life
  24. The mammalian excretory system centers on what?
    paired kidneys
  25. where is the principle site of water balance and salt regulation in mammals?
    in the kidneys
  26. each kidney is supplied with blood by a what and is drained by a what?
    • a renal artery
    • renal vein
  27. Urine exits each kidney through a duct called the what?
  28. both ureters drain into a common what and urine is expelled through a what?
    • urinary bladder
    • urethra
  29. what is a nephron?
    the functional unit of the vertebrate kidney, consists of a single long tubule and a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus
  30. what is the Bowman's capsule?
    Bowman’s capsule surrounds and receives filtrate from the glomerulus
  31. Filtration occurs as blood pressure forces fluid from the what in the glomerulus into the what of Bowman’s capsule (glomerular capsule)
    • blood
    • lumen
  32. Filtration of small molecules is what?
    Filtration of small molecules is nonselective
  33. The filtrate contains what 6 things?
    salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, nitrogenous wastes, and other small molecules
  34. From Bowman’s capsule, the filtrate passes through three regions of the nephron
    • the proximal tubule,
    • the loop of Henle (ansa nephroni),
    • and the distal tubule
  35. Fluid from several nephrons flows into a what  duct, all of which lead to the what, which is drained by the ureter
    • collecting
    • renal pelvis
  36. Cortical nephrons are confined to the what?
    renal cortex
  37. juxtamedullary nephrons have what?
    loops of Henle that descend into the renal medulla
  38. what takes place in the proximal tubule?
    reabsorption of ions, water and nutrients
  39. molecules are transported actively and passively from the what into the interstitial fluid and then the capillaries?
    • the filtrate
    • some toxic materials are secreted into the filtrate and the filtrate volume decreases
  40. aquaporin proteins do what? (descending limb of the loop of henle)
    form channels to allow reabsorption of water to continue
  41. the movement in aquaporin proteins is driven by the high what of the interstitial fluid, which is what to the filtrate?
    • osmolarity
    • hyperosmotic
    • the filtrate becomes increasingly concentrated
  42. what does the distal tubule regulate?
    • k+ and NaCl concentrations of body fluids
    • the controlled movement of ions contributes to pH regulation
  43. the collecting duct carries what through the medulla to where?
    • filtrate
    • to the renal pelvis
  44. what happens in the collecting duct?
    water is lost as well as some salt and urea and the filtrate becomes more concentrated
  45. urine is what to body fluids
  46. Image Upload 1
    nitrogenous wastes
  47. Image Upload 2
  48. Image Upload 3
    malpighian tubules
  49. Image Upload 4
  50. Image Upload 5
  51. Image Upload 6
  52. Image Upload 7
    nephron collecting duct
Card Set
Animal Waste
Test 4
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