Chapter 15 The Special Senses (TB)

  1. What is the main function of the rods in the eye?

    B) vision in dim light
  2. What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

    A) iris
  3. Receptors for hearing are located in the ________.

    D) cochlea
  4. Which of the follow types of neurons are replaced throughout adult life?

    A) olfactory receptor cells
  5. The oil component found in tears is produced by the ________.

    D) tarsal glands
  6. The receptor for static equilibrium is the ________.

    D) macula
  7. Farsightedness is more properly called ________.

    B) hyperopia
  8. Seventy percent of all sensory receptors are located in the ________.

    B) eye
  9. Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?

    A) pharyngotympanic tube
  10. Nerve fibers from the medial aspect of each eye ________.

    A) cross over to the opposite side at the chiasma
  11. Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas canbe transplanted without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea ________.

    D) has no blood supply
  12. The oval window is connected directly to which passageway?

    D) scala vestibuli
  13. There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layersform the optic nerves?

    A) ganglion cells
  14. The first "way station" in the visual pathway from the eye, after there has been partialcrossover of the fibers in the optic chiasma, is the ________.

    C) lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
  15. As sound levels increase in the spiral organ (of Corti), ________.

    D) outer hair cells stiffen the basilar membrane
  16. Which of the following is true about gustatory receptors?

    C) Complete adaptation occurs in about one to five minutes.
  17. Taste buds are not found ________.

    A) in filiform papillae
  18. Select the correct statement about olfaction.

    D) Some of the sensation of olfaction is actually one of pain.
  19. What prevents the eyelids from sticking together when the eyes close?

    B) tarsal gland secretions
  20. Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produceit?

    B) umamiamino acids glutamate and lysine
  21. U.S. employees must wear hearing protection at ________ dB or above.

    B) 90
  22. What is a modiolus?

    D) a bone pillar in the center of the cochlea
  23. Which statement about malnutrition-induced night blindness is most accurate?

    B) Vitamin supplements can reverse degenerative changes.
  24. Dark adaptation ________.

    C) involves accumulation of rhodopsin
  25. Conscious perception of vision probably reflects activity in the ________.

    D) occipital lobe of the cortex
  26. In the visual pathways to the brain, the optic radiations project to the ________.

    D) primary visual cortex
  27. Visual inputs to the ________ serve to synchronize biorhythms with natural light and dark.

    C) suprachiasmatic nucleus
  28. Information from balance receptors goes directly to the ________.

    C) brain stem reflex centers
  29. Motion sickness seems to ________.

    D) result from mismatch between visual and vestibular inputs
  30. In the uterus ________.

    A) despite the fact that the fetus cannot see, functional visual cortical connections are established
  31. Most newborns ________.

    A) often use only one eye at a time
  32. The blind spot of the eye is where ________.

    D) the optic nerve leaves the eye
  33. The first vestiges of eyes in the embryo are called ________.

    C) optic vesicles
  34. Which pairing of terms is incorrectly related?

    A) frequency: loudness
  35. Olfactory cells and taste buds are normally stimulated by ________.

    B) substances in solution
  36. Which of the following could not be seen as one looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope?

    B) optic chiasma
  37. The cells of the retina in which action potentials are generated are the ________.

    B) ganglion cells
  38. During dark adaptation ________.

    C) rhodopsin accumulates in the rods
  39. Tinnitis, vertigo, and gradual hearing loss typify the disorder called ________.

    B) Ménière's syndrome
  40. Which of the following is not a characteristic of olfactory receptor cells?

    A) They are unipolar neurons.
  41. An essential part of the maculae involved in static equilibrium is (are) the ________.

    A) otoliths
  42. Which of the following is true about light and vision?

    A) When we see the color of an object, all light is being absorbed by that object except for thecolor being experienced.
  43. The tarsal plate of the eyelid ________.

    D) is connected to the levator palpebrae
  44. Which of the following is true about photoreceptors?

    D) Rods absorb light throughout the visual spectrum but confer only gray tone vision.
  45. Select the correct statement about equilibrium.

    D) Cristae respond to angular acceleration and deceleration.
  46. The eye muscle that elevates and turns the eye laterally is the ________.

    A) inferior oblique
  47. The receptor membranes of gustatory cells are ________.

    D) gustatory hairs
  48. Light passes through the following structures in which order?

    B) cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
  49. Damage to the medial recti muscles would probably affect ________.

    B) convergence
  50. Which statement about sound localization is not true?

    B) It requires processing at the cortical level.
  51. Which of the following is not a possible cause of conduction deafness?

    D) cochlear nerve degeneration
  52. Visual processing in the thalamus does not contribute significantly to ________.

    D) night vision
  53. Visible light fits between ________.

    A) UV and infrared
  54. Ceruminous glands are ________.

    A) modified apocrine sweat glands
  55. Presbyopia is not ________. 

    B) the unequal curvature of refracting surfaces
  56. Inhibitory cells in the olfactory bulbs are called _________. 

    D) granule cells
  57. There are three layers of neurons in the retina. The axons of which of these neuron layers form the optic nerves?

    B) ganglion cells
  58. Photoreceptors ________. 

    D) package visual pigment in membrane-bound discs, which increases the efficiency of light trapping
  59. Olfactory glands function to ________. 

    C) secrete mucus
  60. The ciliary body does not ________. 

    D) belong to the anterior chamber of the eye
  61. As sound intensity increases, we hear the sound as a louder sound at the same pitch. This suggests that ________. 

    D) cochlear cells that respond to the same pitch vary in responsiveness
  62. ________ is a disorder of the olfactory nerves. 

    C) Anosmias
  63. What are the special senses?
    smell, taste, sight, hearing, and equilibrium
  64. What is the dominant sense?
    Vision - 70 % of all the sensory receptors in the body are in the eyes and nearly 1/2 of the cerebral cortex is in involved in some aspect of visual processing
  65. What part of the eye is called "the white of the eye"?

    A) the sclera
    B) the choroid
    the sclera; this opaque outer layer appears white due to the presence of collagen fibers.
  66. In which layer is the retina found?

    A) uvea
    B) neural layer
    B) neural layer; the retina contains the neural cells whereas the uvea contains the iris.
  67. Which iris color has more melanin?

    A) green
    B) blue
    B) blue
  68. Which iris color has more melanin?

    A) green
    B) blue
    A) green; color variation is due to concentration and distribution of melanocytes. Blue has the least amount of
  69. What are the protein fibers called that make up the lens?

    A) collagens
    B) crystallins
    B) crystallins; collagen is important in the connective tissues and cornea. Crystallins appear in a precisely packed pattern in the lens.
  70. What do we call the gel-like substance in the posterior chamber of the eyeball?

    A) the aqueous humor
    B) the vitreous body
    B) the vitreous body; the aqueous humor is the fluid in the anterior chamber.
  71. Which photoreceptor cells are responsible for sharp vision?

    A) the rods
    B) the cones
    B) the cones; the cones are stimulated by color and intense light.
  72. Which neural cells regulate action potential generation in the eye?

    A) the ganglion cells
    B) the bipolar cells
    B) the bipolar cells; they regulate action potentials of the ganglion cells based on stimulation of the rods and cones.
  73. What is the area called where your vision is the sharpest?

    A) the optic disc
    B) the fovea
    B) the fovea; it contains the highest concentrations of cones, resulting in the sharpest vision.
  74. The boundary of the retina is called the ________.
    ora serrata
  75. The synapse of the olfactory nerves with the mitral cells is called a ________.
  76. The rocks found in one's head (calcium carbonate crystals) are called ________.
  77. The middle ear ossicle is the ________.
  78. The ________ are in the visual pathway and mediate the pupillary light reflexes.
    pretectal nuclei
  79. The oval window touches the stapes and the ________.
    scala vestibuli
  80. The vestibulocochlear nerve first synapses with the ________ in the medulla.
    cochlear nuclei
  81. The apex of the ear hears sounds in the range of ________ Hz.
  82. In the optic ________ the visual fields of the axons are all ipsilateral.
  83. The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and is reflected over the anterior surface of theeyeball is the conjunctiva. True or False
  84. Researchers have found that retinal ganglionic fields are of two types: on center or off center. True or False
  85. The photoreceptor cells are sensitive to damage from light. True or False
  86. Both the cornea and the lens are vascular. True or False
  87. The optic disc is the location where the optic nerve leaves the eyeball. True or False
  88. Sour taste receptors are stimulated by hydrogen ions of acidic food substances. True or False
  89. The fluid contained within the membranous labyrinth is called perilymph. True or False
  90. The extrinsic eye muscle motor units contain only 8 to 12 muscle cells and in some cases asfew as 2 or 3 muscle cells. True or False
  91. Retinal detachment always results in loss of vision. True or False
  92. The structure that allows equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with that outside thebody is the external auditory meatus. True or False
  93. The bending of light rays is called reflection. True or False
  94. The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor. True or False
  95. The neural layer of the retina prevents excessive scattering of light within the eye. True or False
  96. In order for sound to reach the spiral organ (of Corti), the auditory ossicles must vibrate theoval window and set the endolymph in motion. True or False
  97. Sound is generally perceived in the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex. True or False
  98. Light passes through the entire thickness of the neural layer of the retina to excite the photoreceptors. True or False
  99. Without a functioning crista ampullaris, the semicircular canals would not function. True or False
  100. Contraction of the ciliary muscle causes the lens to bend the light less. True or False
  101. Theoretically, an individual born without a middle ear would be able to hear by boneconduction with a hearing aid. True or False
  102. When we move from darkness to bright light, retinal sensitivity is lost, but visual acuity is gained. True or False
  103. The function of the lens of the eye is to allow precise focusing of light on the retina. True or False
  104. Each olfactory cortical neuron receives input from one receptor at a time. True or False
  105. Odorants must be volatile to be smelled. True or False
Card Set
Chapter 15 The Special Senses (TB)
Biology 103A