Overall oil spill affects on animals, marine animals & birds?
- fouls breeding grounds
- interrupts breeding
- toxic if ingested [eaten]
- affects tertiary [top] consumers who eat poisoned prey
- damages airways
- damages sea grass beds
- damages shelter/feeding areas
What is air pollution?
The introduction of chemicals, particulates or biological materials into atmosphere that causes discomfort, disease, or death to humans; damages other living organisms [ex.food crops], or damages natural environment
What are some anthropogenic [man made] sources of air pollution?
- Stationary Sources [smoke stacks, factories]
- Mobile Sources [cars, planes, vessels]
- Biomass Burning [crop waste, dung, wood]
- Chemical's dust & burning [farming/forestry]
- Fumes [paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol]
- Landfill waste deposition generates methane Military [nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare & rocketry]
What are some reduction efforts for air pollution control?
- ~Land Zoning/Planning [agricultural, residential, industrial]
- ~use land efficiently for the benefit of the economy/population & protect environment
- ~Fuel hybrid vehicles bioethanol [sugar cane], biodiesel [corn], electric
- ~Particulate Control [filter out pollutants]
What is Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling?
- the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the ambient atmosphere. Computers solve the algorithms, and use them to estimate or predict the downwind concentration of air pollutants or toxins emitted from sources.
- ex. industrial plants
- vehicular traffic
- accidental chemical releases
What does EPA
stand for and what do they do?http://www2.epa.gov/learn-issues
- Environmental Protection Agency
- Their mission is to protect human health and the environment. The EPA contributes to making our communities and ecosystems diverse, sustainable and economically productive. Create federal laws protecting human health & the environment; ensures they're enforced fairly and effectively.
What is a Green Zone?
A natural habitat [undeveloped] that acts as environmental buffer zone between factories and communities & also offers places of leisure. They alternate with areas of industry to create diversity overall.
Whose responsibility is it to protect the environment and how can it be achieved?
- Protecting the environment is everyone's responsibility, & starts w/ educating ourselves & understanding the issues. The basics include reducing how much energy & materials you use; reduce, reuse, recycle.
- EPA doesn't protect the environment on their own, they work w/ businesses, non-profit organizations, & state and local governments through dozens of partnerships.
What are some of the current issues & concerns of the EPA?
- ~conserving water & energy
- ~minimizing greenhouse gases
- ~re-using solid waste [sewage treatment plant]
- ~getting a handle on pesticide risks
What is the Clean Water Act?
The Clean Water Act [water pollution prevention & control] helped solve many of Ohio's problems like sewage running into streams & other H2O sources
What is a nonpoint source (NPS) pollution?
rainfall/snowmelt running over ground & picking up pollutants from things like run-off, oil & grease, fertilizers, toxic chemicals & dropping them into water sources
What are the primary effects of nonpoint source damage in Ohio streams?
- changing habitats
- changing stream channels
- sediment build-up from fertilizer run-off
- abandoned mine drainage ditches
What is Environmental Stewardship?
Environmental Stewardship refers to responsible use & protection of the natural environment through conservation & sustainable practices.
What does the Ohio EPA
- ~establishes & enforces standards for air, water, waste management & cleanup of sites contaminated w/ hazardous substances.
- ~provide financial assistance to businesses/communities;
- ~education programs for businesses/public ~pollution prevention assistance to help businesses minimize their waste at the source.
What are some of the main causes of human [anthropogenic] impact on the environment?
- Agriculture [deforestation, runoff, waste]:fishing, irrigation, meat production
- Energy Industry [energy harvesting & consumption of fossil fuel resources = global warming]:biodiesel, coal mining/burning, electricity generation, nuclear power, oil shale, petroleum, reservoirs
- Manufactured Products: cleaning products, paint, paper, pesticides
- Mining: erosion, sinkhole formation, loss of biodiversity, contamination of soil & ground /surface water by chemicals from mining processes
- Transportation: [major user of energy; burns most of world's petroleum] aviation, roads, shipping
What are the main effects of the human impact on the environment?
- Biodiversity: [humans have caused the extinction of many species]
- Coral reefs: coral mining, pollution (organic and non-organic), overfishing, blast fishing, digging of canals & access into islands/bays Nitrogen Cycle Agricultural/industrial Nitrogen inputs [humans produce 1/3 N2O] to environment currently exceed inputs from natural Nitrogen fixation. Consequence = global nitrogen cycle significantly altered over past century
What does the US Fish & Wildlife Services
administer the Endangered Species Act (ESA), take the lead in recovering & conserving the Nation's endangered species
Why is excess [too much] CO2 such an issue?
The rate at which we are creating the excess CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere from industrialization, deforestation, & pollution is at a higher rate than plants & oceans can absorb it so = uneven balance.
Will Global Warming stop if we completely eliminate CO2 emissions?
NO it'll stay in Earth's atmosphere for years so it's important to not just eliminate and/or reduce the emissions but to create long term solutions & options for sustainable renewable clean energy alternatives
What are some of the major sources of anthropogenic climate changing Greenhouse Gases & contributions to Global Warming?
Greenhouse Gases are created by burning fossil fuels [49%], making cement, burning forests & grasslands [14%] & other human activities [anthropegenic] such as agriculture [13%], & industrial processes [24%]
What are some ways we can control Greenhouse emissions?
- ~substitute Natural Gas for coal
- ~promote energy efficiency
- ~Renewable Energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and fuel cells
- ~explore options to capture & store CO2
- ~Plant more trees & allow them to reach maturity
- ~Use farmland as a carbon sink
What is recycling?
Recycling is a process to change materials (waste) into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials. Reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) & water pollution (from landfilling) by reduce the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production
What is Sustainable Energy?
Sustainable energy is the sustainable provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs
What technologies promote sustainable energy?
Technologies that promote sustainable energy include renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity,solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal energy, and tidal power,
What is the Greenhouse Effect & how does it work?
the warming of Earth due to the presence of certain gases in the atmosphere, which let sunlight come in but don't let heat go back out into space. It's attributable to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, particularly oil & coal, that > emissions of CO2
What is Global Warming?
A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of CO2, CFCs, & other pollutants.
What are the effects of Global Warming?
- ~climate change
- ~major storm and flood disasters
- ~rising sea levels & temperatures
- ~decreased snow cover in N'ern Hemisphere
- ~ocean acidification (fm. too much CO2)
- ~oxygen depletion in the oceans
- ~ impact world agriculture & food production
- ~more droughts & heat waves
- ~ground level ozone (smog constituent)
- ~impact biological systems migration/habitats
What are 10 indicators of a [globally] warming world?
- increases: temp of sea surface, over oceans & land, near surface [Troposphere]; rise in humidity, ocean heat content & sea level
- decreases: sea ice, snow cover & glaciers
What is acid rain?
- A form of precipitation that is significantly more acidic than neutral water pH7, often produced as the result of industrial processes. Name given to any form of precipitation [rain, snow, sleet, hail, fog] that's more acidic than normal.
What is Thermal Inversion?
Developing country or LDC [Less Developed Country]
- a country that is poor and whose citizens are mostly agricultural workers but that wants to be more advanced socially and economically. Brazil, India, China, Iraq, Korea
- *low standard of living
- *low economy
- *fewer factories and industry
Developed Country or MDC [More Developed Country]
- *high standard of living
- *highly developed economy
- *advanced technology
- *lots of industry & factories
- USA, Japan, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Canada, & South Korea
Waste water from power stations, waste from factories, and fertilizers from farms that are sources of water pollution
Warm water from power stations & industries that is emptied into Rivers & Lakes after being used for cooling, and contains much less oxygen making it more difficult for aquatic life to survive
- Gas commonly released at the surface of landfills, can be collected & used as fuel or piped to local factories to be burned in boilers to produce heat. Also produced on smaller scale by human, animal, and food wastes.
Used in power station chimneys to absorb SO2 . They produce lots of Limestone waste which is a good fertilizer.the USA produces enough of this waste to fertilize 25% of the country's farmland
of or realating to the immediate surroundings of something.
The introduction of chemicals, particulates or biological materials into atmosphere that damages other living organisms [ex.food crops], or damages natural environment