Name the urine organic substances
- Uric acid
- Metabolized meds
Name the urine inorganic substances
What part of the renal is a muscular tube that connects the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder?
Urine is stored in the _________ until excretion through the ___________
- Stored in the bladder
- Excreted in the urethra
What is the outer and inner layers of the kidney?
- Cortex: outer layer
- Medulla: inner layer
What arteries and vein supply and circulate blood to the kidney?
- Abdominal aorta supplies blood to the renal artery
- Renal vein returns blood to the inferior vena cava
What is the functional part of the kidney and what does it do?
- Nephron: functional part of kidney
- Responsible for urine formation
What is the function of glomerulus?
Functions as a semipermeable membrane to make an ultra filtrate of the plasma that is protein free
What is the normal GFR formed per minute by the glomeruli?
What is the function of the proximal convoluted tube?
- Amino acids
What is the value of the renal threshold?
What is the function of the Loop of Henle?
Reabsorb Na and Cl
What is the function of the distal convoluted tubule?
- Reabsorption of Na
- Secretion of H and K
What hormone controls the reabsorption of water, Na, Cl?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
What hormone controls the reabsorption of Na and water and the secretion of K and H into the filtrate?
What is the function of the collecting duct?
Reabsorption of Na and Cl
What secretes renin?
Juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys
What catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I?
What stimulates production of angiotensin II?
What regulates renal blood?
How does Angiotensin II work?
- Regulates blood by:
- Constriction of renal arterioles
- Secretion of aldosterone from the adrenal glands to facilitate retention of sodium
What does aldosterone do for the kidneys?
- Acts on the kidneys by promoting the reabsorption of Na from the filtrate and the secretion of K from the blood
- Reabsorbs Na
- Secretes K
What does the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) do for the kidneys?
Promotes water reabsorption from the filtrate into the blood
What does the parathyroid hormone (PTH) do for the kidneys?
- Promotes Ca reabsorption from the filtrate
- Excretion of phosphate ions from blood
Where is erythropoietin produced?
Produced by the peritubular fibroblasts in the kidneys
What does erythropoietin do?
Stimulates RBC production in response to lowered oxygen levels
Is an inflammation of the glomerulus seen in children and young adults
Can follow Group A Strep respiratory infection
Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, and casts (RBC, granular, and hyaline)
A more serious condition than acute glomerulonephritis that may result in renal failure
Urinalysis results would be similar to acute glomerulonephritis (hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, and casts)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of renal interstitutium that may be cause by an allergic reaction to meds
Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs (especially Eos), and WBC casts
Acute interstitial nephritis
Thickening of the glomerular capillary walls and basement membrane
Characterized by hematuria and proteinuria
May be caused by renal blood pressure irregularities
Characterized by proteinuria (>3.5 g/24 hr), hematuria, lipiduria, oval fat bodies, renal tubular epithelial cells, and casts (epithelial, fatty, and waxy)
Affects a specific number of glomeruli, not the entire glomerulus
Often seen in HIV patients
Characterized by hematuria and proteinuria
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Results in a long-term progressive loss of renal function
characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, glucosuria, presence of casts (including broad)
An infection of the renal tubules caused by a urinary tract infection
Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, bacteria, and casts (WBC and bacterial)
Chronic infection of the tubules and interstitial tissue that may progress to renal failure
Characterized by hematuria, proteinuria, WBCs, bacteria, and casts (WBC, bacterial, granular, waxy, and broad)
Tubular necrosis caused by nephrotoxic agents an other disease processes
Results in failure of the kidneys to filter blood
What test measures the amount of solute dissolved in a solution?
What test measures and is dependent on the solute dissolved in a solution AND the density of this solute?
What 2 tests:
Can be used to evaluate renal concentrating ability
Monitor the course of renal disease
Monitor fluid and electrolyte therapy
- Specific gravity
What test is used to assess renal waste removal and solute reabsorbing abilities?
- Creatinine clearance
- Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
- (Glomerular tests)
What test is used to assess glomerular filtration rate?
What does a decreased clearance test indicate?
Compromised kidney function
What is the creatinine clearance formula?
- U: Urine creatinine
- V: urine flow in mL/min
- P: plasma creatinine
- SA: body surface area
What is the reference range of creatinine clearance?
- Males: 105 +/- 20 mL/min/1.73 m2
- Females: 95 +/- 20 mL/min/1.73m2
What is the normal output of urine for an adult?
1200-1500 mL/24 hr
What is the term for decreased urine output because of dehydration?
What is the term for no urine output because of kidney damage or renal failure?
What is the term for an increased urine output at night?
What is the term for an increased daily output of urine - may exceed 2 L/day?
What causes polyuria?
- Diabetes mellitus
- Diabetes insipidus