psych220 CH 10

  1. 6 weeks of age in Embryo
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  2. What happens if Wolffian Ducts and Mullerian Ducts both develop?
  3. What is Intersex?
    External sex organs affected due to chromosome defects or the presence of the wrong hormones.
  4. What is gender?
    The psychological aspects of being male or female.

    It is influenced by biological and environmental factors.
  5. What are gender roles?**
    Culture's expectations for masculine or feminine behavior

    It includes attitudes, actions, and personality traits associated with being male or female in that culture
  6. What is gender identity?
    the individual's sense of being male or female
  7. What is transgendered?**
    Gender identity does not match external characteristics or sex chromosomes
  8. What is transsexual?
    People who feel they were born the wrong sex. Typically are cross-dressers and undergo hormone treatment and/or reassignment surgery
  9. What influences gender?
    • Biological Influences
    • Environmental Influences
  10. What are biological influences on Gender
    • Hormones
    • Chromosome
  11. Environmental influences on Gender**
    • Parenting
    • Surroundings
    • Culture
  12. What are the two types of culture?
    • Individualistic: non-traditional
    • Collectivist: traditional
  13. Social learning theory**
    gender identity is formed through reinforcement of appropriate gender behavior as well as imitation of gender models
  14. Gender schema theory
    theory of gender identity acquisition in which a child develops a mental pattern, or schema, for being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behavior around that schema.
  15. gender stereotype
    a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on being male or female.
  16. Sexism
    prejudice about males and/or females leading to unequal treatment.
  17. Sexual Orientation: Nature**
    Assumes no choice, much like being male or female

    Evidence for genetic influences is increasing.

    (twin studies found 52% of identical sibling also gay opposed to 22% fraternal)[Bailey, 1991]
  18. Sexual Orientation: Nurture
    Assumes behavior can change, placing burden of "normalcy" on homosexual person

    Male homosexuals generally are more feminine as children [Bailey, 1995] Does his change the way they are raised?
  19. 3 Famous Research Studies on Human Sexuality**
    • 1. Masters and Johnson (1955-56) on Human Sexual Response
    • 2. Kinsey (1948, 1953) on Sexual Behavior
    • 3. The Janus Report (1993) on Sexual Behavior
  20. Masters and Johnson Study
    used volunteers, some of whom were prostitutes, and both observed and measured their physiological responses during all phases of sexual intercourse

    publication after 12 years of research

    challenged sexual myths and the meaning of sexual normalcy
  21. Kinsey Studies
    Series of sexual behavior surveys in the late 1940s and early 1950s

    Revealed some highly controversial findings about the kinds of sexual behavior common among people in the United States, including:

    • Homosexuality
    • Premarital sex
    • Extramarital sex
  22. Janus Report
    Large-scale survey of sexual behavior in the United States in 1990s

    Did not differ widely from those of Kinsey but looked at many more types of sexual behavior and factors related to sexual behavior, including:

    Sexual deviance - behavior that is unacceptable according to societal norms and exprectations
  23. Organic or Stress-Induced Dysfunctions**
    • Hypoactive Sexual Desire
    • Aversion to sex
    • Inhibited Sexual Arousal
    • Premature/ Retarded Ejaculation
  24. Hypoactive Sexual Desire**
    lack of interest in sex
  25. Aversion to sex**
    anxiety, disgust, repulsion to having sex
  26. Inhibited sexual arousal**
    erectile inhibition, inhibited vaginal lubrication
  27. General origins of Sexual Dysfunction**
    • 1. Life cycle events
    • 2. Experience of first partner sex
    • 3. STDs
    • 4. Medical Conditions
    • 5. Drugs, prescribed and illicit
    • 6. Cultural and/or religious influence
  28. How to protect from spreading STIs**
    • Use condoms
    • Have only one partner
    • Abstain from sex
    • Avoid IV drug use
    • Aware of various symptoms of diseases
    • Get regular physicals
  29. Adolescence
    the period of life from about age 13 to the early 20s, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult
  30. Puberty
    • the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak
    • period of about four years
  31. Adolescence vs Puberty
    • Adolescence: psychosocial changes
    • Puberty: physical changes
Card Set
psych220 CH 10
Psychology 220 Chapter 10 Final notecards