1. List the defenses of the URT.
    • Normal Flora.
    • Mucas Membranes.
    • Cilia.
    • Macrophages.
  2. What is the causative agent for URT Streptococal Pharyngitis?
    Streptococcus pyogenes.
  3. What is the causative agent of URT Diphtheria?
    Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  4. What is the causative agent for URT the Common Cold?
    • Rhinoviruses.
    • Coronaviruses.
  5. What is the causative agent for URT Otitis Media Ear Infections?
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Streptococcus pyogenes.
    • Haemophilus influnzae.
  6. What is the causative agent for URT Otitis externa Ear Infections?
    • Staphylococcus aureus.
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  7. What is the causative agent for LRT Whooping Cough?
    Bordatella pertussis.
  8. What is the causative agent for LRT Classic Pneumonia?
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Staphylococcus aureus.
    • Klebsiela pnemoniae.
    • Haemophilus influenzae.
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    • gram positive cocci.
    • gram negative bacilli.
  9. What is the causative agent for LRT Mycoplasma Pneumonia (walking pneumonia)?
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
  10. What is the causative agent for LRT Legionnaires's Disease?
    Legionnella pneumophila.
  11. What is the causative agent for LRT Tuberculosis (TB)?
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  12. What is the causative agent for LRT Anthrax?
    Bacillus anthracis.
  13. What is the causative agent for LRT SARS?
    • coronavirus. CoV
    • common cold type virus (not influenza type virus).
  14. What is the causative agent for LRT Pneumocystis Pneumonia?
    • Pneumocystis jiroveci (Pneumocystis carinii)
    • (a fungus)
  15. How does the exotoxin for Diphtheria function?
    • 2 polypeptide chain toxin
    • fragment A inhibits protein synthesis leading to cell death.
    • fragment B target mammalian heart and nervous system cells.
  16. What are the toxins for Bordatella pertussis?
    • hemagglutinin.
    • Exotoxin.
    • Endotoxin.
    • Pertussis toxin.
  17. What is the function of the Endotoxin for Bordatella pertussis?
    LPS (lipopolysaccharide).
  18. What is the function for hemagglutinin in Bordatella pertussis?
    Antigen that helps Bordatella to attach to cilia.
  19. What is the function of Exotoxin in Bordatella pertussis?
    paralyzes cilia on respiratory cells.
  20. What is the function of the Exotoxin of Anthrax?
    • produces cardiovascular shock.
    • septicemia w/n hours of infection.
    • Death 2-3 days.
  21. What are symptoms of Pharyngitis?
    • tender tonsils with pus-filled lesions.
    • high fever.
    • acute throat soreness.
    • chills.
    • headache.
  22. What are the symptoms of Diphtheria?
  23. What are the symptoms of the common cold?
    • excessive mucus secretion.
    • sneezing.
    • inflammation of mucous membranes.
    • sore throat.
    • headache.
    • cough.
  24. What are the symptoms for Catarrahal stage of Whooping Cough?
    • fever.
    • sneezing.
    • vomiting.
    • mild dry persistent cough.
  25. What are the symptoms of the Paroxysmal Stage of Whooping Cough?
    • Mucus.
    • masses of bacteria fill the airway.
    • strong violent cough (whoops sound 50%).
    • cyanosis (blue skin lack of oxygen).
    • difficulty keeping airway open.
  26. What are the symptoms of the Convalescent stage of Whooping Cough?
    • Secondary infection common at this stage.
    • Mild cough last for months.
  27. What are the symptoms of Glomerulonephritis?
    Inflammaiton and damage to the glomeruli of the kidneys.
  28. What are the symptoms of Rheumatic Fever?
    • Immune complexes damage the heart valve in cross-reaction.
    • Fever.
    • Chorea.
    • Malaise.
    • Arthritis.
    • 2-5% mortality.
  29. What are the symptoms of Classic Pneumonia & Pneumococcal Pneumonia?
    • Presence of organisms elicit inflammatory response, fluid accumulation.
    • Cough.
    • Fever.
    • Chest pain.
    • Shortness of breath.
    • Rapid breathing.
    • Production of sputum w/Cough
  30. What are the symptoms of Mycoplasmal Pneumonia?
    • No respiratory signs.
    • Fever.
    • Malaise.
    • 3-10% contract Mild pneumonia w/ insidious onset.
  31. What are the symptoms of Leggionaires' Disease?
    • Organisms colonize near alveoli.
    • Organisms prevent fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes so survives w/n macrophage.
    • Symptoms similar to classic pneumonia.
    • Milder form = Pontiac Fever.
  32. What are the symptoms of Active Tubercuolsis?
    • Bad cough.
    • Pain in chest.
    • Cough up blood or sputum.
    • weakness or fatigue.
    • weight loss.
    • no appetite.
    • chills.
    • Fever/night sweats.
  33. What are the symptoms of Latent Tuberculosis?
    • No symptoms.
    • Does not feel sick.
    • cannot spread tb to others.
    • test positive on skin test.
    • has normal chest xray and sputnum test.
  34. What are the symptoms of Q-fever?
    • Chills.
    • Fever.
    • Headache.
    • Severe sweats usually self limiting.
    • similar to primary atypical pneumonia.
    • chronic infection - endocarditis.
  35. What are the symptoms of Anthrax?
    • Cardiovascular shock.
    • Septicemia w/n hours of infection.
    • Death w/n 2-3 days.
  36. What are the symptoms of SARS?
    • High fever.
    • Dry cough.
    • shortness of breath.
    • Difficulty breathing.
    • X-rays indicating pneumonia.
  37. What are the symptoms of Pneumocystis Pneumonia?
    • Cough.
    • Fever.
    • Shallow respiration.
    • cyanosis.
  38. What allows the bacteria to make toxins in Diphtheria?
    a prophage produces exotoxin.
  39. What is the psuedomembrane of diphtheria?
    • clotted blood.
    • cells.
    • leukocytes killed by the exotoxin.
  40. Why is it impossible to make a vaccine for the common cold?
    200 viruses cause the common cold.
  41. How is Otitis Media caused?
    pharyngeal organisms pass into the Eustation tube and cause infection.
  42. Why do children develop this infection more than adults?
    As children age, eustachian tube grows and angle changes.
  43. What are the three stages of Whooping Cough?
    • Catarrhal stage.
    • Paroxysmal stage.
    • Convalescent stage.
  44. How is classic pneumonia caused?
    • normal flora.
    • High dose of organism inhaled.
    • endogenous or direct contact of respiratory secreations from carrier.
  45. How does leggionella pneumophila evade the host defenses?
    Organism prevent fusion of phagosome and lysosome so survives w/n the macrophage.
  46. Where is Leggionella pneumophila found?
    • Air conditioners.
    • Ornamental fountains.
    • Produce sprayers.
  47. What type of cell wall does Mycobacterium tuberculosis have?
    Mycolic acid (acid fast postive stain).
  48. How does Mycobacterium tuberculosis evade the host defenses?
    • phagocytized by macrophage by grow w/n the macrophage.
    • grow replicate, lyse macrophage and infect new cells.
  49. What are tubercles?
    • Contain live organisms and macrophages.
    • walled off by fibroblasts, lymphocytes and neutrophils.
    • may become calcified.
  50. How are tubercules formed?
    • due to cell mediated immune response.
    • neutrophil inflitration and fluid accumulation in alveoli.
  51. What type of organism causes Q-fever?
    • Coxiella burnettii.
    • a rickettsia organism (must have some life cycle w/n another cell).
  52. How does Coxiella burnettii evade the host defenses?
    • Phagocytized by host cells.
    • Replicated w/n the phagolysosomes and eventually rupturing the cell.
    • ruptured cell releases new pathogenic organisms.
  53. How do hese organisms survive outside of a cell?
    large cell variant may have a type of endospore at one end thereby giving resistance uncharacteristic of other rickettsia.
  54. agent
Card Set
Micro Chap 21