Social Perception and Attribution Vocabulary

  1. a metaphor for how social information is processed that likens social perceivers to academic researchers who formulate theories and use data to test hypotheses in order to predict and control behaviour
    naive scientist model
  2. motivated distortions of attribution that function to maintain or increase self-esteem
    self-serving attributional bias
  3. proposed general tendency for people to explain their own behaviour in more situational terms, but other people's behaviour in more dispositional terms
    actor-observer difference
  4. attention-grabbing property of an object or events depending on perceptual features such as vividness, perceiver sensitivity or some combination of the two
  5. the assumption that other people generally share one's own personal attitudes and opinions
    false consensus bias
  6. systematic distortions in the sampling or processing of information about the causes of behaviour
    attributional biases
  7. the idea that depressed people's interpretations of reality are more accurate than those of non-depressed people
    depressive realism
  8. the proposal that depression results from learning that outcomes are not contingent on one's behaviour
    learned helplessness theory
  9. comparison of the frequency of an effect in the presence of a potential cause with its frequency in the absence of that cause
    probabilistic contrast
  10. an intrinsic property of an object or event enables it to exert influence on some other object or event
    causal power
  11. the assumption that causal factors need to be stronger if an inhibitory influence on an observed effect is present
    augmenting principle
  12. the presence of a causal factor working towards an observed effect implies that other potential factors are less influential.
    discounting principle
  13. knowledge structure shaping attributions; may be either abstract representations, or domain-specific ideas about cause and effect
    causal schema
  14. CCD
    consensus, consistency and distinction
  15. evidence relating to how different actors behave towards the same object
    consensus information
  16. evidence relating to how an actor's behaviour towards an object varies across different situations and times
    consistency information
  17. evidence relating to how an actor responds to different objects (or entities) under similar circumstances
    distinctiveness information
  18. proposes that observers work out the causes of behaviour by collecting data about comparison cases. Causality is attributed to the person, entity, or situation depending on which of these factors covaries with the observed effect
    covariation theory
  19. the proposed tendency to infer a personal disposition corresponding to the observed behaviour even when the behaviour was determined by the situation
    correspondence bias
  20. observers infer intentions behind actions by comparing the consequences of the behavioural options that were open to the actor and identifying distinctive outcomes
    analysis of non-common effects
  21. proposes that observers infer correspondent intentions and dispositions for observed intentional behaviour under certain circumstances
    correspondent inference theory
  22. the process whereby social perceivers arrive at conclusions about another person's behaviour
    causal attribution
  23. when an originally false expectation leads to its own confirmation. The social perceivers' initially incorrect beliefs about a target cause that target to act in ways that objectively confirm those beliefs
    self-fulfilling prophecy
  24. perceivers compute the (weighted or unweighted) mean value of pieces of information about a person; when other information is strongly positive, additional mildly positive information yields a less positive impression
  25. a proposed process for averaging or summing trait information when forming impressions. (eg. warm and boring = more positive than cold and boring)
    cognitive algebra
  26. a holistic approach to impression formation, implying that social perceivers actively construct deeper meanings out of the bits of information that they receive about other people
    configural model
  27. an integrated set of ideas held by a social perceiver about how different traits tend to be organised within a person
    implicit personality theory
  28. perceivers add together pieces of information about a person' when other information is strongly positive, additional mildly positive information yields a more positive impression
  29. the tendency for earlier information to be more influential in social perception and interpretation
    primacy effect
  30. a trait whose perceived presence doesn't significantly changed the overall interpretation of a person's personality
    peripheral trait
  31. a dispositional characteristic of the personality viewed by social perceivers as integral to the organisation of the personality
    central trait
  32. the process of collecting and interpreting information about another person's individual characteristics
    social perception
Card Set
Social Perception and Attribution Vocabulary
Chapter 3 from Introducing Social Psycholgy 5E Hewstone et al.