Crime Analysis Final

  1. Bullet
  2. Handling of Charred Documents
    • Found in fireplace: slide piece of heavy paper under charred paper and carefully place on a cushion of tissue in a rigid box.
    • Ashtray: place ashtray in a moveable container so that it does not slide.
  3. Qualities of Exemplars
    • Comparable
    • Representative
    • Adequate
    • Non-dictate
    • Victim
  4. 3 Ways to Preserve Body Fluid Evidence
    • Air dry
    • Refrigerate up to a week
    • Delivery to lab right away
  5. Basic Assumption of Question Documents
    While we are all taught to write, we all have a unique and individual way of doing so.
  6. How to Determine Direction of Blood Spatter
    Lead edge of disruption
  7. Why should you recover the tool as soon as possible?
    So that it cannot be used again
  8. Factor considered in making handwriting comparisons
    • Skill
    • Height ratios
    • Slant
    • Size proportions
    • Starting and ending strokes
    • Paper
    • Inks
    • Spacing
  9. Indented Writing Submissions
    • Pre-label container
    • Label not to bend or fold
    • Place inside file folder
    • Packaged securely to prevent rubbing
  10. Drug Abuse
    Any use of a drug to an extent that causes harm to individual or society
  11. Other Characteristics of a Fired Bullet
    • Manufacturer
    • Potential Firearm
    • Bullet in Victim
    • Bullet Fragment
    • Blood on Bullet
  12. Evidence Handling: Firearm in Water
    Package gun in same water it is found in
  13. Nuclear DNA
    From both parents
  14. Blood Spatter: Passive
    Falling, dripping
  15. Firearms: Lab Capabilities
    • If cartridge has been worked through mechanism, extractor and ejector marks may be present.
    • Cartridge case may have firing pin, breech face marks, chamber marks, extractor marks and ejector marks.
    • Bullet characteristics.
  16. Bullets: Class Characteristics
    • Caliber
    • Number of lands and grooves
    • Direction of twist
  17. Determination from a Toolmark
    • Type of tool
    • Size of tool
    • Unusual features
    • Action employed
    • Is tool mark of value for identification/
  18. Handling of Intact Documents
    • Pre-label evidence container to avoid having to mark packaging materials with document enclosed.
    • Label not to bend, fold or stamp container.
    • Soft tipped tweezers or gloves.
  19. How to package a shirt for evidence
    • Slide cardboard between front and back
    • One cardboard on top, one on bottom
    • Fold sleeves over cardboard
    • One more piece of board on top
  20. Firearm Examinations
    • Proximity Testing
    • Fracture Matching
    • Speedometer Examinations
    • Number Restoration
  21. Blood Spatter: Photography
    • Overview photos
    • Midrange photos to orient yourself to spatter
    • Distribution photo with two large scales
    • Close up photos of each stain with metric millimeter scale
  22. Swabbing Technique
    Bring object with stain into lab, especially if two or more examinations are requested.
  23. Additional Toolmark Considerations
    • Types of crimes
    • Don't try to march up tool to impression, may cause damage
    • Tool not allowed in court
  24. Schedule I Drugs
    • High potential for abuse
    • No accepted medical use in U.S.
  25. Cartridge Case
    Left behind after projectile goes down range
  26. Obtaining Exemplars
    • Study the document
    • Don't show suspect the document
    • Don't indicate how to spell or puncuate
    • If suspect appears to be distinguished in their writing, you can speed up or slow down your diction.
  27. Blood Spatter: Projected
    Cast off, expirated
  28. Bullets: Individual Characteristics
    Microscopic stria that is imparted on the bullet as it passes through the barrel of a gun
  29. Handguns
    • Auto-loading pistol
    • Revolvers
  30. Drug Forms
    • Crack cocaine vs. Powder
    • LSD = Blotter acid
  31. Questioned Document
    An object that contains handwriting or typewritten markings whose source or authenticity is in doubt
  32. Pharmacological Drug Classification
    • Narcotics
    • Depressants
    • Stimulants
    • Hallucinogens
    • Cannabis
  33. Handling Torn Documents
    • Do not attempt to piece document together
    • Place all piece in envelope and submit
  34. Body Secretions
    • Seminal Fluid
    • Saliva (assumed)
    • Vaginal Fluid (assumed)
    • Urine
  35. Blood Spatter: Wipe
    Blood onto non-bloody surface
  36. Shotshell
    Complete ammunition component
  37. Shoulder Guns
    • Shotgun - smooth bore
    • Rifle - barrel with lands and grooves
  38. Questioned Documents: Other Considerations
    • Fingerprints
    • Ink Identification
    • Alteration or obliteration of photography can be seen through UV light or infared
  39. Limitations of Questioned Documents Lab
    • Cannot determine age, sex or race from handwriting.
    • No conclusion may result when

    • 1. Poor exemplars are obtained
    • 2. Poor questioned document
    • 3. Lack of standards that occur at the same time of document
  40. Schedule II Drugs
    • High potential for abuse
    • Has a currently accepted medical use in U.S. with severe restrictions
  41. How to determine point of origin of blood spatter
    Impact spatter
  42. Clandestine Lab Dangers
    Could have explosive materials that may cause fires or toxic fumes
  43. Blood Spatter: Swipe
    Hand with movement onto bloody surface
  44. Cartridge
    Complete component
  45. Blood Spatter: Transfer
    Hand with no movement onto bloody surface
  46. Comparison of Questioned Documents
    Direct means of identifying an individual and many variables must be taken into account in handwriting comparison
  47. How does blood spatter help investigation?
    • Reconstruction
    • Sample Site
    • Statement
  48. How to conclude two writings were written by one person
    There must be a combination of significant individual writing characteristics and an absence of unexplainable differences
  49. DNA History
    • RFLP
    • PCR
    • PCR-STR (Best)
  50. Toolmark
    Impression, striated mark or combination of both
  51. Conclusions of comparison between tool and toolmark
    • The tool made the mark
    • The tool did not make the mark
    • There are not sufficient corresponding individual characteristics between the tool and toolmark to make a determination
  52. Methods of Forgery
    • Trace
    • Simulation
    • Freehand
  53. Drug Recognition
    • Visual description
    • Field Test
    • PDR (Physician Desk Reference)
    • DON'T taste - lolol no really this is on the test
  54. Evidence Handling: Firearm
    • Safely unload firearm after documenting the cylinder in revolvers or chamber/magazines in pistols.
    • Package in rigid container
    • Label container as loaded or unloaded
    • When being submitted for DNA: Must be sealed with tape
Card Set
Crime Analysis Final
Crime Analysis Final Notes