Education refers to...
a process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, norms, and ideologies, and in so doing, prepares young people for all adult roles and adults for new roles
e.g., the USA formal education in elementary schools, secondary schools, high schools, colleges, and universities
Education also helps to provide __________ to the next generation.
What is socialization?
Socialization is the process in which both adults and children learn his or her culture and how to live within it from others.
Educational Attainment refers to...
the years of school a person has completed
e.g., 8th grade, high school diploma, associate degree, bachelor's degree, master's degree, or doctorate degree
Educational Attainment refers to...
that which a student has learned such as reading, writing, and mathematics
e.g., the manifest function of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) is to measure achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics
Some consider the CAHSEE to be a type of (1)_______ ________.
The reason for this is....(2)__________.
- 1. stereotype threat
- 2. because acquiring a high school diploma is dependent on passing the test and if an individual is not good with tests s/he may already feel they will fail.
What happens when a high school student does not pass the CAHSEE?
If a high student does not pass the CAHSEE, then the student receives a certificate that states the s/he has completed 12 years of school.
Tracking refers to...
ability grouping by clustering people together into classes or tracks
e.g., some people get tracked into college prep courses while others get tracked into vocational educational courses
What is vocational education?
It is a program that focuses on only the education necessary for a specific career, employment or occupation.
What is college prep?
College prep courses are designed for students who need to strengthen their academic skills before enrolling in college-level courses.
What are special education courses?
Special education or special needs education is the education of students with special needs in a way that addresses the students' individual differences and needs.
What may potentially be negative for students placed in a special education program?
Additionally, because these students are separated from their peers, they may likely feel inferior and thus bring them down a road of continuing to feel insignificant.
What is the difference between Junior College and Community College?
Junior College - transfer only
Community College - transfer and vocational education are offered
High-Stakes Testing refers to...
a particular test which will determine whether a person will get a particular high school diploma, college degree, etc.
e.g., the CAHSEE; the SAT; the GRE; the state exam for nursing students
Degree Inflation refers to...
the outcomes of requiring people to have more and more education to get a particular job
e.g., a person may not need the degree to do the job, the person needs the degree to get the job
the wealth producing capacity of a people
e.g., improvements in education help to develop the wealth-producing capacity of a people
Human Capital takes (1)_______ and (2)______ back to the people.
What are the top three countries that participate in Human Capital?
- 1. Japan
- 2. South Korea
- 3. China
What are the three different types of Human Capital?
- 1. Social Capital
- 2. Cultural Capital
- 3. Physical Capital
Social Capital refers to...
the knowledge and skills passed from one generation to another to build wealth
e.g., knowledge and skills about the educational system and process
Cultural Capital refers to...
educational institutions, libraries, and museums wherein ideas and norms are passed from one generation to another to build wealth
e.g., the Oakland Museum, Oakland Public Library, etc.
Physical Capital refers to...
buildings, roads, and bridges that help a society to deal with challenges in its environment and build wealth
e.g., the Student Services Building at CCC; Ronald V. Dellums Federal Building in Oakland; Highway 80; Carquinez Bridge, etc.
Class Size refers to...
the number of students in a classroom
e.g., the ideal ratio of students to a teacher in an elementary classroom is a maximum of 20 to 1
Bilingual Education refers to...
a program that allows students learning a second language to be educated in their first language until they reach a certain level in the second language
e.g., a 10 year old student from Japan will be instructed in Japanese until the student reaches a certain level in the second language
Community College refers to...
an educational institution wherein students are able to take courses to transfer to a four-year college or university, take courses that lead to an A.A. degree, and take courses that lead to a certificate and a vocation
e.g., the community college has the transfer function as well as the vocational function whereas the traditional junior college has the transfer function only
Violence in the Schools refers to...
physical assault in educational settings
it also includes intimidation or the threat of violence
e.g., one student commits a physical assault on another student; one student engages in bullying against another student and it involves a physical assault