1. the science of food, water, nutrients (biomolecules) and the way in which living
    organisms utilize them
  2. a substance needed by the body in relatively large amounts includes
    carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
  3. a substance needed by the body in relatively small amounts includes vitamins (eg. B12, A, Folic Acid, etc)
    and minerals (Ca, Fe, Co, etc.)
  4. Besides micronutrients and macronutrients, what are two other things the body needs?
    • Water
    • Fiber (to aid in digestion)
  5. the sum of all biochemical reactions occurring in an organism (all reactions occurring within a living cell)
  6. reactions that lead to the breakdown of the biomolecules (energy is released)
  7. reactions that lead to the synthesis of biomolecules (energy is used up)
  8. What are the 3 stages involved in the catabolism of food?
    • 1. Hydrolysis of biomolecules
    • 2. Formation of acetyle coenzyme A (acetyl CoA)
    • 3. Citric Acid cycle and electron transport to produce ATP
  9. Fats break down into...
    • fatty acids
    • glycerol
  10. carbohydrates break down during digestion into...
    glucose and other simple sugars
  11. Proteins break down into...
    amino acids
  12. The breakdown of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins can be categorized as _______ reactions
  13. What type of molecules undergo beta-oxidation to produce Acetyl CoA?
    fatty acids and glycerol
  14. What type of molecules undergo glycolysis to produce Acetyl CoA?
    carbohydrates (glucose)
  15. Does the formation of Acetyl CoA produce any energy?
    Yes, it releases some energy
  16. When Acetyl CoA is ____ in the citric acid cycle this yields ___ and ____
    • oxidized
    • CO2
    • energy
  17. ATP
    Adenosine triphosphate
  18. ADP
    Adenosine Diphosphate
  19. AMP
    Adenosine monophosphate
  20. Rank the following from lowest to highest power output: lipids, glucose, proteins
    • proteins (low power, longer lasting)
    • lipids
    • glucose (high power, fast energy)
  21. Is ATP used for long term energy storage?
    No, just short term. ATP gets hydrolyzed withing about a minute
  22. What kind of work can ATP provide energy for?
    • Chemical work (biosynthesis)
    • Mechanical work (muscle contraction)
    • Osmotic work (active transport across cell membrane)
  23. Anabolism of amino acids yields ___ such as ___
    • proteins
    • (hair, skin, muscle)
  24. Anabolism of fatty acids yields ___
  25. Anabolism of sugars (monosaccharides) yields...
    glycogen (for energy storage)
  26. Name an energy-rich molecules that is a primary energy carrier in the body
  27. Name two molecules that supply electrons to the electron transport chain
    • NADH
    • FADH2
Card Set
Terms from metabolism glossary, complied by Cynthia